Folate (vitamin B9): Uses, dosage, side effects

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Folate (vitamin B9) is important in the formation of red blood cells and for healthy cell growth. Folic acid - the man-made version of vitamin B9 - is essential for the proper development of the human body. When a diet is lacking in folate-rich foods or folic acid can lead to folate deficiency, which has a number of health effects.

1. What is Vitamin B9?

Vitamin B9 or Folate, formerly known as folacin, is the general term for both naturally occurring food folate and folic acid, the fully oxidized monoglutamate form of the vitamin used in supplements and fortified foods. This is a B vitamin important for cell growth and metabolism.
Vitamin B9 and folic acid have a similar effect. Vitamin B9 is found naturally in foods. Folic acid is a man-made version of supplements and foods added.
Since 1998, folic acid has been added to cereals, flours, breads, pastas, bakery items... Foods that are naturally high in folate include leafy vegetables (such as spinach, broccoli, and spinach). greens and lettuce), okra, asparagus, fruit (such as bananas, melons, and lemons) beans, yeast, mushrooms, meat (such as beef liver and kidney), orange juice, and tomato juice.
Folic acid is also used in many other medical conditions including nerve pain in diabetes, heart disease, dementia, and many others.
Folic acid is often used in combination with other B vitamins. The recommended daily amount of folate for adults is 400 micrograms (mcg). Adult women who are planning to become pregnant or may become pregnant should be advised to take 400 to 800 mcg of folic acid per day.
Ăn nhiều chất cơ để phòng ngừa rối loạn tiêu hóa

2. What does Vitamin B9 do?

Prevents Breast Cancer Development Adding vitamin B9 in the diet may reduce the risk of developing breast cancer in women who also eat a lot of methionine, vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin) or vitamin B6 (pyridoxine). prevent birth defects Folic acid supplements can prevent birth defects of the neural tube. Pregnant women need to take prenatal vitamin B9 daily – ideally starting three months before conception – to ensure they get enough of this essential nutrient.
Treatment of folate deficiency For those with folate deficiency, they need to be treated with oral folic acid supplements.
Reduces risk of heart disease and stroke Folic acid works with vitamins B6 and B12 to control high levels of homocysteine ​​in the blood. Elevated homocysteine ​​levels can increase your risk of diseases of the heart and blood vessels (cardiovascular disease).
Reduce the risk of cancer Some studies show that folate may reduce the risk of various cancers.
Treatment of Depression and Dementia Folic acid is effectively used in the treatment of depression and in the prevention of dementia.
As a treatment for severe kidney disease (end-stage renal disease or ESRD) About 85% of people with severe kidney disease have high homocysteine ​​levels. High homocysteine ​​levels have been linked to heart disease and stroke. Taking folic acid reduces homocysteine ​​levels in people with serious kidney disease. However, folic acid supplements do not reduce the risk of heart disease-related conditions.
Reduces high levels of homocysteine ​​in the blood (hyperhomocysteine) High levels of homocysteine ​​have been linked to heart disease and stroke. Taking folic acid reduces homocysteine ​​levels by 20% to 30% in people with normal to slightly elevated homocysteine ​​levels. It is recommended that people with homocysteine ​​levels greater than 11 micromole/L supplement with folic acid and vitamin B12.
Reduce toxicity caused by methotrexate Taking folic acid seems to reduce nausea and vomiting, which are possible side effects of methotrexate treatment.
Buồn nôn
Uống axit folic dường như làm giảm buồn nôn và nôn
Birth defects of the brain and spine (neural tube birth defects) Folic acid during pregnancy reduces the risk of neural tube defects. Pregnant women should get 600-800 mcg of folic acid daily from diet or supplements starting 1 month before pregnancy and during pregnancy. Pregnant women with a history of neural tube birth defects should take 4000 mcg of folic acid per day.
Reduce the risk of lead eye disease in older adults Older adults are more prone to eye problems such as age-related macular degeneration or AMD. Folic acid with other vitamins including vitamin B6 and vitamin B12 helps reduce the risk of age-related vision loss.
Lowers high blood pressure Research shows that taking folic acid daily for at least 6 weeks reduces blood pressure in people with hypertension. But taking folic acid as a medicine doesn't seem to lower blood pressure any more than blood pressure medication alone.
We should get folate from foods. A diet needs to be balanced with all the nutrients the body needs. However, folic acid supplements are recommended for women who are planning to become pregnant, may become pregnant, are pregnant, or are breastfeeding.

3. Dosage of vitamin B9

3.1 When taken by mouth Vitamin B9 or folic acid is safe for most people to take by mouth. Most adults do not experience any side effects when used in doses less than 1 mg per day. Using folic acid in doses of 800 mcg to 1.2 mg per day may increase the risk of heart attack in people with heart problems.
Folic acid is not effective when taken in large doses for a long time. Using folic acid doses greater than 1 mg per day may cause abdominal cramps, diarrhea, rash, sleep disturbances, irritability, confusion, nausea, stomach pain, behavior changes, reactions skin, convulsions, gas, excitability and other side effects.
Vitamin B9 hay axit folic an toàn cho hầu hết mọi người khi uống
3.2 When taken as an injection Folic acid is safe for most people when injected into the body. Most adults do not experience any side effects when used in doses less than 1 mg per day.
3.3 For folic acid deficiency The usual dose prescribed is 250 mcg (micrograms) to 1 mg (milligrams) per day.
3.4 For use in preventing birth defects of the brain and spine (neural tube birth defects) Women of childbearing potential should take 400 mcg of folic acid daily from a supplement, with pregnant women pregnancy, this figure is 600 mcg. Women with a history of pregnancy complicated by a neural tube defect usually take 4 mg per day beginning one month before and continuing for up to 3 months after conception.
3.5 In people with end-stage renal disease High homocysteine ​​levels can be more difficult to treat, and doses of 800 mcg to 40 mg per day have been used.
3.6 Improve response to depression medication Use a dose of 200-500 mcg per day.
3.7 To reduce toxicity caused by methotrexate 1 mg per day is probably sufficient, but up to 5 mg per day can also be used.
3.8 Prevents eye disease that leads to vision loss in the elderly Take 2.5 mg folic acid, 1 mg vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin) and 50 mg vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) per day.
3.9 For Gum Disease In Pregnant Women A mouthwash containing folic acid has been used twice daily for one minute.

4. Side effects when using vitamin B9

Chán ăn
Nếu sử dụng quá liều có thể gây ra: buồn nôn, ăn mất ngon, cáu gắt, rối loạn giấc ngủ,...
When taken orally in appropriate doses, folic acid is safe for the body. However, if overdosed can cause: nausea, loss of appetite, irritability, sleep disturbances,... People with allergies may have reactions to folic acid supplements. Warning signs of an allergic reaction include: skin rash, itching, difficulty breathing,...
Excess folic acid is excreted in the urine. A high folate intake can mask a vitamin B12 deficiency until its neurological effects become irreversible. This can often be remedied by supplementing with 100% of the daily value of both folic acid and vitamin B12.
Taking folic acid with vitamin B6 may increase the risk of heart attack in people with a history of heart disease; Folic acid along with iron may increase the risk of dying or requiring hospital treatment in areas of the world where malaria is common.
Cases of Vitamin B12 Deficiency Anemia: Taking folic acid may mask vitamin B12 deficiency anemia and delay appropriate treatment.
Seizure disorders: Taking folic acid supplements might make seizures worse in people with seizure disorders, especially at high doses.
Some reactions can be caused when folic acid is combined with certain other medicines, including:
Anticonvulsants : Taking folic acid with fosphenytoin (Ceritherx), phenytoin (Dilantin, Phenytek) or primidone (Mysoline) has may lower the level of the drug in your blood; Central Nervous System Suppression: Taking folic acid with a medicine that acts as a central nervous system depressant (barbiturate) might decrease its effectiveness; Methotrexate (Trexall): Taking folic acid with this medicine used to treat cancer might interfere with its effectiveness; Pyrimethamine (Daraprim): Taking folic acid with this antimalarial might decrease its effectiveness.

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Reference source: mayoclinic.org; webmd.com

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