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Beware of infectious complications after tonsillectomy

This is an automatically translated article.

The article was consulted with Specialist Doctor I Tran Minh Tuan - Doctor of Ear, Nose and Throat - Head and Neck Surgery - Department of General Surgery - Vinmec Nha Trang International General Hospital.
Tonsillectomy is a treatment for recurrent tonsillitis that affects your health. Thanks to the development of science and technology, tonsillectomy surgery has become more and more simple and safe. However, some infectious complications can still occur after tonsillectomy. Therefore, when you have unusual symptoms, you should go to a medical facility for examination.

1. The tonsils are an important organ but are very susceptible to inflammation


The tonsils are an organ that contains lymphocytes to protect the body against bacterial invasion. This is also where the production of IgG antibodies plays an important role in immune function.
Tonsils is a component of the immune barrier in the oropharynx, it is active from 4 to 10 years old, then at puberty the immune function of the tonsils decreases markedly and is no longer active.
When the tonsils resist the invasion of bacteria into the nasopharynx in excess, tonsillitis occurs. The consequences of killing bacteria in the tonsils often leave dead bacteria and white blood cells, necrotic tissue forming very foul pus clots, which can fall out of the tonsils.
When the tonsils are repeatedly inflamed, its ability to fight bacteria is weakened. It is the inflammatory foci in the tonsils that are the starting point for episodes of pharyngitis. Acute tonsillitis is mainly caused by viruses (about 70%) consider editing or removing
Causes of tonsillitis can be mentioned such as:
Upper respiratory tract infection, cold... Viral infection, flu. Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus causes tonsillitis and dangerous complications such as acute arthritis, endocarditis, valvular heart disease, and glomerulonephritis. Diphtheria causes inflammation with pseudomembranous membranes that block the airways and produce toxins. Fungal tonsillitis is common in immunocompromised people. When you have tonsillitis, you will have symptoms like:
High fever over 39-40 degrees Celsius. Two tonsils are red and swollen, sometimes with white pseudomembranous adhesions to the tonsils. Feeling of dry throat, sore throat, difficulty swallowing. Usually bilateral temporal headache. Nasal congestion, runny nose (at first clear mucus, then thicker, white or yellow...) Tonsillitis, if not treated promptly, can recur many times and leave complications such as: : Abscess around the tonsils, scarlet fever, acute arthritis, glomerulonephritis ...
Tonsillitis is usually treated by medical methods, using antibiotics, anti-inflammatory drugs, .. But there are many cases. in case of tonsillectomy.
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2. In what cases should tonsils be removed?

Not every tonsillitis has to be cut. A child can have recurrent tonsillitis, but still eat and sleep normally, gain weight gradually, have no difficulty swallowing, not have difficulty breathing, two tonsils are still functioning well, do not need to be removed.
Many parents take their children to the hospital to ask for tonsillectomy in this condition because they consider it to be an extra part, which must be removed to make the child grow up quickly. This notion is completely wrong. The number of children with mild tonsillitis is very high and does not need to be removed.
Only remove tonsils in the following cases:
Tonsillitis has recurrent inflammation, 5-6 times in a year. Tonsillitis causes abscess complications. Tonsillitis causes complications such as otitis media, sinusitis or serious complications such as rheumatic fever, glomerulonephritis, arthritis. The tonsils are too large to obstruct the airway, causing snoring, sleep apnea. Or recurrent infections affect your quality of life. In addition, it is necessary to cut the tonsils when it has many nooks and crannies containing many secretions causing bad breath, swallowing problems or suspicion of malignancy... Usually, children over 5 years old can have their tonsils removed if needed. Many cases of children under 5 years of age but with excessively enlarged tonsils should also be indicated for removal. There are also many cases of people over the age of 50 who still need to have their tonsils removed.

3. Beware of infectious complications after tonsillectomy

Tonsillectomy is a simple surgery, easy to perform and quite safe, but infectious complications can still occur after tonsillectomy, even death. Complications that may be encountered during tonsillectomy include:
Anaphylaxis due to anesthesia: Before performing tonsillectomy, the patient is anesthetized to relieve pain, this process can occur complications of anaphylaxis. Bleeding: This is the most common complication after tonsillectomy, about 2-3% of people with tonsillectomy will experience bleeding and the mortality rate of this surgery is estimated at 1 in 40,000. Causes of bleeding may be due to improper cutting technique, patients with coagulation disorders, improper care. If you have a lot of bleeding after tonsillectomy or do not stop on your own, you need to go to the hospital immediately for examination and treatment to stop bleeding in time. Post-tonsillectomy infection is not a major/urgent complication of post-tonsillectomy bleeding. Post-tonsillectomy infectious complications: Post-tonsillectomy site infection may cause fever. Sore throat, sore throat: You may still have pain after tonsillectomy. The painful swelling sites are usually the throat and ears. Weight loss: Due to skipping meals, dehydration due to pain. Vulvar edema and hematoma: This condition can cause airway obstruction after surgery. Injury to the throat tissues in place, not completely cutting the tonsils. Change voice. Psychological trauma, panic or depression. Death from complications from anesthesia or bleeding.
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4. Notes to help reduce the risk of infectious complications after tonsillectomy

After tonsillectomy, you can do light activities, avoid heavy activities for 2 weeks after surgery. You can go to school or work when you can eat and drink, with little pain. No complications after surgery were recorded: high fever, difficulty breathing, bleeding in the oropharynx.
Almost all patients experience swelling and pain after tonsillectomy. You will feel a sore throat when you wake up, which can last a long time, and it can also get worse for the first few days. It may take 10-12 days for the pain to go away completely.
You can do the following to help relieve pain, promote recovery, and prevent infectious complications after tonsillectomy:
Medications: Take pain relievers, anti-inflammatory medications as directed by your surgeon or hospital staff. Fluids: You need to drink plenty of fluids after your tonsillectomy to avoid dehydration. Fruit juices or smoothies are good choices for you. Food: Soft, liquid foods that are easy to swallow, like apple sauce or boiled water, are the best choice right after surgery. Foods that are easy to chew and easy to swallow should be added to the diet as soon as possible. Acidic, spicy, hard or crunchy foods should be avoided as they can damage the incision causing pain or bleeding. Rest: You will need bed rest for the first few days after surgery, which is very important. Avoid strenuous activities such as jogging and cycling for two weeks after surgery. You can go to school or work when you can eat and drink, the pain level is low, no complications after surgery are recorded such as high fever, difficulty breathing, bleeding in the oropharynx. If you have signs of an infection such as a fever accompanied by a sore throat or heavy bleeding, go to the hospital immediately to be examined and treated promptly by a doctor.
Currently, the ENT specialist - Vinmec International General Hospital is one of the prestigious addresses, trusted by a large number of customers in examining and treating common ENT diseases, tumors. head, face, neck, congenital malformations in the ENT region by common surgical methods such as surgery, microscopic or endoscopic tympanic patch, fistula removal, Bondy surgery, nasopharyngeal aerosol, injection Not only has a system of modern facilities and equipment, Vinmec is also a place to gather a team of experienced doctors and nurses who will greatly assist in the diagnosis. diagnose and detect early signs of abnormality of the patient's body. In particular, with a space designed according to 5-star hotel standards, Vinmec guarantees to bring patients the most comfort, friendliness and peace of mind during the examination and treatment at the Hospital.

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