What is the difference between overweight and obesity?

This is an automatically translated article.

This article is expertly consulted by Master, Doctor Ngo Thi Oanh - Pediatrician - Pediatrics - Neonatology - Vinmec Ha Long International General Hospital.
Overweight and obesity are often referred to together, leading many people to misunderstand this as the same thing. However, overweight and obesity have differences and are clearly divided on the table of BMI values.

1. Definition of overweight and obesity

Overweight is a condition in which your weight exceeds the appropriate threshold for your current height.
Obesity is a phenomenon of excessive and abnormal fat accumulation locally throughout the body, obesity negatively affects human health. When assessing obesity, we not only care about weight, but we also need to consider the percentage of fat in the body.

2. The difference between overweight and obesity

Chỉ số BMI
Chỉ số BMI
2.1. BMI To assess overweight or obesity, people often rely on the table of BMI values ​​for each area. BMI or Body mass index value is the body mass index, which is a tool used to measure the amount of fat in the body. BMI is applicable to both men and women, determined by the following formula:
BMI = W / (H^2)
Where: W is the weight of the person to be measured (kg)
H is height (m)
2.2. BMI values ​​for overweight and obese people The International Obesity Research Association in collaboration with the International Diabetes Research Institute, the WHO Pacific regional agency has made recommendations on BMI for overweight and obese people in Southeast Asia
(including Vietnam) are as follows:
Overweight: BMI value ≥ 23 Pre-obese: 23 < BMI < 24.9 Obesity level I: 25 < BMI < 29.9 Level II obesity: BMI ≥ 30.0 The distribution of excess fat has great significance for disease risk. Fat accumulation in the abdominal area is often more dangerous than accumulation in the peripheral areas. Therefore, in addition to monitoring the BMI value, we need to consider additional factors such as the waist/hip ratio.
Đái tháo đường
Chỉ số BMI 0,9 đối với nam và 0,8 đối với nữ nguy cơ mắc bệnh đái tháo đường rất nhiều đối với những người trưởng thành.
The hazard value levels for each sex are as follows: 0.9 for men and 0.8 for women. If they fall within these ranges, the risk of diseases such as cardiovascular disease, high blood pressure, diabetes, etc. increases greatly for adults.

3. Overweight and obesity in children

For children, WHO recommends assessing overweight and obesity based on the weight/height ratio. Or you can look up the BMI table, but the value of the table must be calculated exactly for each different age.
Some signs of overweight and obese children that we can observe with the naked eye:
Uncontrolled weight gain, the level of growth is too fast every month in the growth chart. Round face, chubby cheeks, big neckline. Thick belly fat, fat in the groin, chest, thighs, armpits. There are manifestations that are not absolute such as sweating a lot when running and jumping normally.

4. The consequences that obesity brings to human health

Sỏi túi mật
Người béo phì có nguy cơ bị sỏi mật gấp 4 lần so với những người bình thường
4.1. For adults Diseases caused by obesity to health:
Cardiovascular diseases: Hyperlipidemia, high blood pressure, coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular accident,... Diabetes. Gallstones: Obese people are four times more likely to develop gallstones than the general population. Abdominal obesity is directly proportional to the risk of disease, the higher the belly fat, the greater the likelihood of gallstones. Cancer: Increases the risk of breast and cervical cancer in women. For men, kidney cancer and prostate cancer are common. Osteoarthritis, Gout. Obese women give birth very difficult, the risk of high blood pressure, diabetes during pregnancy is very high. In addition, there may also be some other diseases such as arthritis, spinal pain, increased degenerative joint conditions, ... When performing surgery, obese people are easy to leave sequels and difficult to heal the incision. . Due to the obese body, it is difficult to move, causing quite a lot of obstacles, so obese people are often prone to work accidents. The life expectancy of obese people is often shorter than that of the general population. 4.2. For children If weight is not controlled, children will become obese when they grow up and are at risk of all the dangerous diseases listed above. However, children who are overweight and obese at an early age have health disadvantages:
Being teased and teased by peers leads to low self-esteem. In the long-term, serious effects on children's psychology, more severe can last into adulthood, many children are at risk of depression. This greatly affects the quality of learning, psychophysiology of children before and after puberty. Tendency to low self-esteem, dissatisfaction with the shape of the body, obsess over being overweight, hating on the body,... To effectively treat overweight and obesity, you need to find a nutritionist. experienced. They will provide you with the most appropriate routes to be able to effectively treat obesity.
For children, it is necessary to pay attention to the menu so that it still ensures the necessary nutrients for the development of young children. In particular, in the treatment of obesity, psychological factors play a very important role. You need to be patient, not depressed, not pessimistic to be able to lose weight at will.

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