Bad breath: Causes and cures

The article was professionally consulted by Specialist Doctor II Nguyen Khanh Nam - Doctor of Odonto-Stomatology - Department of General Surgery - Vinmec Nha Trang International General Hospital.
Halitosis is a condition in which bad breath comes from the mouth. People with bad breath often feel confused and lose confidence when communicating. So what are the causes and cures for bad breath?

1. Causes of bad breath

The main cause of bad breath is the release of volatile sulfur compounds in the oral cavity. Here are the causes for this compound to evaporate.
1.1 Bacterial bad breath Volatile sulfur compounds are caused by Gram-negative proteolytic anaerobes. These bacteria are usually located in stagnant areas of the mouth, such as periodontal pockets, the surface of the tongue or the interdental areas, and in carious lesions.
1.2 Temporary causes of bad breath When eating foods that contain drying agents, such as alcohol, tobacco, or foods that provide high protein and sugar content such as milk, when they break down in the mouth, they will break down in the mouth. release amino acids containing a lot of sulfur compounds; Onions and garlic are also foods containing high sulfur content, which can pass through the intestinal lining into the blood, then released into the lungs and then evaporated out; Smoking not only increases the concentration of volatile substances in the mouth and lungs, but also aggravates bad breath, because it affects and dries the oral mucosa; Bad breath in the morning after waking up has also been linked to reduced saliva production and secretion, leading to temporary dry mouth and bad breath. 1.3 Causes of bad breath from the mouth Periodontal and gum diseases such as gingivitis, periodontitis, or acute ulcerative necrotizing gingivitis, periodontitis, peri-implantitis, abscess cause bad breath; Ulcers due to malignancy, local causes, aphthous or the effects of some drugs are also causes of bad breath; Decreased salivation with age, use of drugs, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, Sjogren's syndrome causing bad breath; Poor oral hygiene, tongue residue, or Candida infection also causes bad breath; Deposition of debris on orthodontic appliances such as dentures, appliances, ... is one of the causes of bad breath; Bone diseases such as osteomyelitis, osteonecrosis, or dry socket and other malignancies can also cause bad breath.
Người bị hôi miệng thường cảm thấy bối rối khi giao tiếp
1.4 Other causes of bad breath Frequent bad breath can be caused by causes outside the mouth such as:
Use of certain drugs: Drugs that can cause bad breath such as amphetamine, chloral hydrate, cytotoxic drugs cells, dimethyl sulphoxide, disulfiram, nitrate and nitrite, phenothiazine; Systemic diseases: Nasopharyngeal infections such as respiratory disorders (nose, sinuses, tonsils, pharynx), can lead to bad breath; Gastrointestinal diseases: Bad breath is considered a typical and frequent symptom of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Helicobacter pylori infection also causes stomach ulcers, and this is also the cause of bad breath; Diabetes, diseases of the liver, kidneys, ... also lead to the risk of bad breath due to the breakdown of body fat; Rotten fish odor syndrome: This is a very rare genetic syndrome. The reason is that the body has a metabolic disorder, not metabolizing trimethylamine found in fishy foods, causing chemicals to accumulate inside the body, especially in the liver, before this substance is excreted. go out.

2. How to cure bad breath

When detecting persistent bad breath, the patient needs to see a doctor to determine the cause. Most often, the cause is due to poor oral hygiene and dental diseases. Therefore, first, the patient needs to go to the dental clinic to determine the cause coming from the mouth, if there is an infection in the mouth such as tartar, tooth decay, plaque, periodontitis, the patient needs to be done. dental interventions first.
If bad breath is not caused by causes in the mouth or after dental intervention but still has bad breath, the patient needs to visit other specialists such as ear - nose - throat, gastroenterology, urology... for appropriate treatment.
Some temporary ways to cure bad breath such as using gum or mouthwash, mouthwash spray after smoking, eating onions and garlic.
Consider the use of some medications that reduce saliva production causing bad breath, besides, the patient also needs to regularly add water to avoid dry mouth.
To reduce and prevent bad breath, it is necessary to pay attention to oral hygiene. Need to clean your teeth properly, brush your teeth twice a day, in the morning after waking up and at night before going to bed. Use dental floss, tongue scrapers, and mouthwash to limit plaque build-up. Periodic dental examination every 4-6 months and perform dental interventions when needed. After eating, you should rinse your mouth with a small sip of water to wash away any remaining food. Daily tongue scraping helps to remove bacterial plaque on the surface of the tongue.
BSCK II Nguyen Khanh Nam has more than 30 years of experience in Odonto-Stomatology. Doctor Nam was formerly Head of Odonto-Stomatology Department of Khanh Hoa Provincial Hospital and Deputy Director of Service Center of Khanh Hoa Provincial Hospital before being a General Internal Medicine Doctor of Medical Examination and Internal Medicine Department of Vinmec Nha Trang International General Hospital. like nowadays.

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