Bone marrow aspiration in what cases?

Bone marrow aspiration is a method of taking fluid in the bone marrow to check and diagnose diseases of the bone marrow and blood cells, and at the same time monitor the treatment process to promptly change it to suit each patient.

1. Related concepts

Bone marrow: A spongy and loose tissue that is located at the center of some of the large bones in the body. Marrow is the place where red and white blood cells are produced from stem cells Biopsy: A method of taking a small tissue sample from a part of the body, carrying it under a microscope to look for abnormal cells. aspiration: Taking fluid from the bone marrow and observing it under a microscope or other test method

2. Bone marrow puncture for what?

Bone marrow is composed of a liquid part and a denser tissue part. During a bone marrow biopsy, your doctor will use a needle to take a sample from the solid tissue. During a bone marrow aspiration, your doctor will use a needle to take a sample from the fluid.
Performing a biopsy and aspiration of the bone marrow under anesthesia are tests that help the doctor check that the bone marrow is healthy, producing a sufficient number of normal blood cells. These two procedures are often done at the same time to help your doctor diagnose and monitor blood and marrow problems.
The doctor may order the patient to perform a biopsy and aspiration of the bone marrow to:
Find the cause of blood cell disease, including a type of blood cell that is produced too little or too much, such as a deficiency red blood cells (anemia), white blood cell deficiency (leukopenia) or thrombocytopenia (thrombocytopenia), leukocytosis, thrombocytosis, pancytopenia and polycythemia in the blood Find the cause cause of blood disorders, hemochromatosis, unexplained fever Determine stage or progression of diseases involving bone marrow or blood cells Monitor response to leukemia treatment Confirm timing the progression of lymphoma or cancer: lymphoma, leukemia, and multiple myeloma; metastatic cancer from other areas such as breast cancer with bone marrow metastasis
Chọc hút tủy xương
Xác định ung thư di căn từ các vùng khác như ung thư vú di căn tủy xương

3. Procedure for performing bone marrow aspiration

3.1 Preparation Do not eat or drink anything after 12 o'clock the night before the procedure Do not take insulin or diabetes medicine because the patient cannot eat after taking the medicine. You can take other medications with a small sip of water Ask your doctor about medication, stop medication before the procedure Blood tests within 48 hours before the procedure, including bone marrow aspiration, including including complete blood count, prothrombin time and partial thromboplastin time Report to your doctor any allergies or sensitivities to the dressing or anesthetic before the procedure Report the problem to your doctor heart or lung disease, eg asthma, high blood pressure, heart disease, convulsions, persistent acid reflux, hiatal hernia, uncontrollable pain,... Report drug or alcohol use to your doctor beer and other drug use Relatives must be accompanied during the procedure 3.2 Implementation Bone marrow fluid is usually obtained from the apex of the posterior aspect of the pelvis. Sometimes, spinal fluid is taken from the front of the hip or chest bone (sternal bone) and the bone below the knee (for children under 18 months of age).
Patients are measured blood pressure, weight, body temperature, height. The patient is also asked to lie on his side or on his stomach depending on the location of the extraction. Administer intravenous sedation to the patient; Clean the root canal site, anesthetize it with local anesthetic; Use a needle to aspirate bone marrow fluid If a biopsy is required, a small sample of bone marrow will be removed from the site where the bone marrow was aspirated. The doctor gently presses on the needle puncture site to help stop the bleeding, then bandages the site. Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy usually only lasts about 10 minutes. However, this process can also require more time for preparation and post-procedure care, especially for patients receiving sedation.
Chọc hút tủy xương
Thời gian chọc hút, sinh thiết tủy xương thường chỉ kéo dài khoảng 10 phút
3.3 Care of the procedure site Bandage the bone marrow aspiration site and keep it dry for 24 hours The patient should not shower, bath, swim, or use a hot tub After 24 hours, patient can wet the biopsy site and aspiration bone marrow If there is evidence of bleeding through the dressing or bleeding that does not stop at the procedure site, persistent fever, increased pain or discomfort, swelling, redness or discharge at the procedure site, etc., the patient should immediately notify the doctor. To reduce discomfort and bleeding, the patient should avoid strenuous activities or exercise for a day or two. 3.4 Reading Results A bone marrow specimen will be sent to a laboratory for analysis. Doctors usually return results to patients within a few days, but it can take longer.
At the laboratory, a hematologist or a doctor who specializes in biopsies will evaluate the specimen to determine if the patient's bone marrow is producing an adequate number of healthy blood cells as well as detect abnormal cells. This information will help doctors confirm or rule out a diagnosis, determine how advanced the disease is, and evaluate how well treatment is working.
Bone marrow aspiration procedure plays an important role in the diagnosis and treatment of blood and bone marrow diseases. When performing the procedure, the patient should strictly follow the instructions of the doctor so that the bone marrow aspiration and biopsy process takes place quickly and safely.
Vinmec International General Hospital with outstanding advantages in professional qualifications and skills of doctors and nurses, with a system of modern machinery up to standards, strictly implementing the rules of hygiene and sterilization before , during and after surgery, to help the lumbar puncture procedure take place safely and effectively.

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