Causes of anemia during pregnancy

The amount of blood in a normal person is determined through a test of hemoglobin (Hb) levels in the blood. If the Hb level is less than 13g/dl in men and 12g/dl in women, the subject is considered anemic. Pregnant women are diagnosed with anemia during pregnancy when Hb is less than 11g/dl.

1. How does anemia during pregnancy affect?

The role of hemoglobin is to carry oxygen with the blood stream to provide energy-generating metabolism in each cell, especially in important organs such as the brain and heart. Therefore, in normal people, anemia will make the body weak, tired, reduce the ability to exercise, poor concentration. If anemia progresses for a long time, it will increase the risk of malnutrition, cardiovascular diseases, and recurrent infections. However, anemia in pregnant women will adversely affect not only the mother herself, especially women with pre-existing anemia, but also the fetus.
For women, miscarriage is likely to happen in the first trimester or stillbirth or premature rupture of membranes, placental abruption, premature birth in the last trimester. At the same time, the pregnancy period also faces a high risk of gestational hypertension, preeclampsia - eclampsia, amniotic infection, premature rupture of membranes; the labor period is prone to prolonged labor, postpartum hemorrhage, postpartum infection. When the baby is born, the mother may be deprived of milk to feed the child, easily exhausted...
For the fetus, chronic fetal distress due to malnutrition is common. Babies born with low birth weight, premature birth, jaundice after birth, prolonged nursing treatment time. Besides, children of mothers with anemia during pregnancy will have an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases than other children later in life. On the other hand, if the diet lacks folic acid, it can cause neural tube defects in the fetus such as craniofacial defects, split spine; Iodine deficiency causes children to be born with congenital hypothyroidism, mental retardation, mental retardation...
Therefore, maintaining hemoglobin within physiological limits is very important in the general population. pregnant women in particular. At the same time, a pregnancy with iron deficiency anemia would be considered a high-risk pregnancy.
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Thiếu máu khi mang thai có thể gây nguy cơ sảy thai

2. Causes of anemia during pregnancy in the first trimester

Pregnancy is a prolonged strenuous activity, which not only consumes the mother's energy, but also consumes a lot of stored energy to form the fetus. Meanwhile, women in the reproductive period, due to frequent blood loss during menstrual cycles, are inherently at high risk of anemia in the community. By the time pregnancy is discovered, this risk will increase many times.
During the first trimester, this period sometimes occurs physiological and pathological vaginal bleeding. In cases of physiological bleeding, the amount of blood loss is usually small, bright red due to the implantation of the fetus on the surface of the uterine lining, which is very proliferating blood vessels, ready to welcome the embryo to adhere. However, special attention should be paid to cases with malformations, uterine lesions or previous interventions on the uterine lining, such as idiopathic endometrial hyperplasia, uterine fibroids, the procedure of dissection, curettage of the uterus... This will increase the amount of physiological loss of blood due to the inadvertent implantation of the fetus.
If the amount of blood appears through the vagina a lot, red or black, lasts for many days and the woman has abdominal pain, ultrasound shows the placenta is peeling or no longer shows the embryo, the embryo is seen but the fetal heart is not visible. , test the concentration of bHCG in the blood suddenly drops... then it is necessary to think about the possibility of miscarriage, threatened miscarriage, stillbirth. At that time, it is necessary to go to the hospital for early intervention, to avoid complications such as clotting disorders, causing massive bleeding. If left too late, acute anemia can be life-threatening.

3. Causes of anemia during pregnancy in the second trimester

The second trimester is a period of great fetal growth. Under the periodic fetal ultrasound screen, pregnant mothers see their baby growing "quickly" and in a very happy mood. However, if a diet is not full of energy and a variety of necessary nutrients, the mother will face the risk of severe anemia, causing fetal malnutrition, even the fetus will have diseases. birth defects.
Accordingly, when the adhesion of the placenta to the uterine wall has been strengthened, the cause of anemia in this period is inherently just an imbalance of "supply - demand". Therefore, the mother and her family need to have good prenatal knowledge in building a daily menu, focusing on iron-rich food sources. In addition, to control iron deficiency anemia in particular or micronutrient deficiency during pregnancy in general, in addition to the daily diet, pregnant women need to actively supplement with multivitamins. Specially formulated for pregnant women.
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4. Causes of anemia during pregnancy in the last trimester

In the last trimester, the fetal growth rate begins to slow down, mainly to facilitate the head rotation, readying position for labor. According to observations, a normal labor always faces the risk of losing an average of 500 ml of blood. This amount of blood loss can be doubled if surgery is chosen. In emergency caesarean section situations, blood loss is sometimes uncontrollable and blood transfusion is required.
Not only that, if there are postpartum complications such as delayed placental abruption, postpartum haemorrhage, postpartum infection..., the risk of blood loss is still ongoing. Therefore, preparing physically for pregnant women to give birth, ensuring the safety of both mother and child, is a matter of great concern not only in the last trimester but throughout pregnancy.

In summary, the pregnancy stage always faces the risk of anemia at any time. Good antenatal knowledge, good physical preparation during pregnancy, nutritional supplements combined with daily iron pills are essential to reduce the risk of anemia in pregnancy and have a "round mother, baby" square".
At Vinmec International General Hospital, there is a package maternity service as a solution to help pregnant women feel secure because of the companionship of the medical team throughout the pregnancy.
When choosing Maternity Package, pregnant women can:
The pregnancy process is monitored by a team of qualified doctors Regular check-ups, early detection of abnormalities Maternity package makes it convenient for pregnant women. birth process Newborns receive comprehensive care

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