Acne: Causes, mechanism of formation

Acne is a disease of hair follicles on the face, chest, and back that is more common in adolescents during puberty. The cause, the mechanism of formation is not caused by bacteria, although bacteria play a role in the development of acne. A clear understanding of the pathophysiology of acne will play an important role in treatment and prevention.

1. What is acne?

Acne is a skin condition where small sized pimples appear when the hair follicles on the skin become clogged with oil and dead skin cells. Symptoms of acute acne are whiteheads, blackheads or pimples and usually appear on the face, forehead, chest, upper back and shoulders.
Acne is most common in adolescents, although it can affect anyone of any age.
In the acute phase of acne, there are many effective treatments, but acne can be persistent. As the pimples and inflammatory bumps heal, in some people only small dark spots are left, in others new pimples develop.
Depending on the severity of the acne, the presence of acne can cause guilt, anxiety for the patient or sequelae leaving scars on areas of the skin such as the face. However, when the correct cause is confirmed, the sooner the mechanism is formed and the sooner treatment is started, the more effective the disease will be localized and the aesthetic effect will be high.

2. What are the symptoms of acne?

Acne signs and symptoms vary depending on the severity of each person's skin condition. Specifically, acne will have the following manifestations:
Whiteheads if the skin has closed pores Blackheads if the skin has open pores Small, red bumps in the form of papules Pimples, pustules Large tumors , solid, pain below the surface of the skin Painful, swollen, pus-filled lumps below the surface of the skin
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3. What causes acne?

There are four main factors considered to be the cause of acne:
Excess oil production, which clogs hair follicles Excessive activity of androgen hormones, increased sebum secretion more than the skin needs. In addition, another cause of acne is genetic. If your parents had acne, you'll also have a higher risk of developing it than your peers during their teenage years. Even if one or both of your parents had acne as an adult, you're more likely to have acne that persists into adulthood.
Besides, women are also more likely to get acne in adulthood than men. The hypothesis to explain this is due to the changes in hormone levels in the female body at certain times in life. These timelines include:
Beginning of menstruation During pregnancy, usually in the first 3 months of pregnancy Having polycystic ovary syndrome - a common condition that can cause acne fish in women during adulthood, accompanied by weight gain and the formation of small cysts inside the ovaries that delay pregnancy.

4. What is the mechanism of acne formation?

Acne is caused when small holes in the skin, called hair follicles, become clogged with oil glands that contain sebum. These are small glands found near the surface of the skin, attached to hair follicles, and have small openings for a hair or an individual hair to grow out. Therefore, acne usually appears on your face, forehead, chest, upper back, and shoulders because these areas of skin have the most oil glands, which secrete sebum. Acne can even appear on the scalp because there are oil glands in the hair follicles.
If the cyst wall bulges and contains acne, it will produce whiteheads. Conversely, if the hair follicle is open, it will cause blackheads. Blackheads may look like dirt trapped in a pore, but the pore is actually clogged with bacteria and oil, turning brown when exposed to the air.
Acne will turn to boils are raised red spots with a white center mass that form when hair follicles become blocked by inflammation or bacterial infection. The blockage and inflammation that grows deep inside the hair follicle creates cystic masses under the skin's surface. Inflammation in hair follicles, if not well controlled and widespread, will form acne lumps.

5. What factors can affect the condition of acne?

The following factors are thought to trigger acute acne or aggravate existing acne:
Hormones. Androgens are growth hormones in boys and girls during puberty that cause the sebaceous glands to enlarge and produce more sebum. At the same time, hormonal changes related to pregnancy and oral contraceptive use can also affect sebum production. However, if androgen levels are low, a woman's skin may appear more acne-prone. Certain drugs. Examples include drugs containing corticosteroids, testosterone or lithium. Diet. Studies show that certain factors in the diet, including skim milk and carbohydrate-rich foods — like bread, bagels, and chips — can make acne worse. than. Concerned. Stress and anxiety can make acne appear more and more severe. Poor hygiene. Acne is not caused by dirty skin. However, a dirty skin is a good environment for bacteria to grow and cause disease. Skin damage. Washing the skin, scrubbing it too hard, or cleaning with harsh soaps and chemicals that irritate the skin can make acne worse. Cosmetics. Cosmetics have no evidence of aggravating acne, especially if you use oil-free makeup. However, if the pollen particles clog pores, causing allergies, not removing makeup is another factor that promotes acne formation. Pumpkin skin. Regularly wearing tight, tight clothes will make the pores clogged, easy to form acne. Smoke. Secondhand smoke or chemicals exposed to smoking can contribute to acne in older adults or make skin worse.
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6. How to treat acne?

The treatment of acne for long-term effectiveness needs to be individualized and suitable for each cause and mechanism of acne formation in each person.
The basic thing everyone can do to have a healthy, acne-free skin is regular and proper skin hygiene, building a diet rich in green vegetables, fruits, drinking enough water; At the same time, it is necessary to have a reasonable rest, get enough sleep, avoid stress, anxiety and limit the use of stimulants such as smoking.
If the condition of acne is severe and severe over time, it is necessary to see a dermatologist to soon be prescribed special drugs, ensuring to limit the appearance of acne and the sequelae. on the skin. In addition to oral and topical medications, patients can refer to topical light and chemical therapies to improve aesthetics later.
In short, acne is the obsession of many people. Because the cause, the mechanism of acne formation in each person is different, the treatment needs to be personalized to be effective, both to reduce acne, prevent further occurrence as well as achieve aesthetics. skin.
As soon as acne appears in a small amount, you should immediately go to a medical facility to be examined and consulted by doctors soon, helping to treat quickly and effectively. Vinmec International General Hospital has a team of highly qualified, experienced, psychological and dedicated dermatologists who will help you have the most effective treatment regimen, without affecting the aesthetics. of skin.
To register for examination and treatment at Vinmec International General Hospital, you can contact the nationwide Vinmec Health System Hotline, or register online HERE.
References: medicinenet.com, health.harvard.edu, webmd.com

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