Ear, nose and throat diseases are common in children and adults

The article was professionally consulted by Dr. CCII Nguyen Van Thai - Department of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Vinmec Danang International General Hospital. He used to work at the Department of Otolaryngology - Hue Central Hospital with more than 17 years of treatment experience, especially in the field of Head and Neck Surgery. His strength is examining and consulting otolaryngology and head and neck diseases; Ear, nose and throat surgery, head and neck surgery.

Due to the anatomical structure of the Ear - Nose - Throat which are natural cavities connected to each other and to the outside, so ENT disease also affects other organs of the body. When you have a sore throat, it will cause rhinitis, laryngitis, and ear infection because the ear, nose and throat are connected; pharyngitis - nose is often the cause of sinusitis. The following are the 7 most common ENT diseases in children and adults.

1. Inflammation of the middle ear

Otitis media is usually caused by infection with viral, bacterial or fungal pathogens. The most common causative organism is Streptococcus pneumoniae. Others include Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis. Among older adolescents and young adults, the most common cause of ear infections is Haemophilus influenzae.
Viruses such as respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and those that cause the common cold can also lead to otitis media by compromising the normal defenses of airway epithelial cells steam on.
Otitis media often occurs in children because the eustachian tube is short, narrow, and slightly horizontal compared to adults. The Eustachian tube connects the middle ear to the nasopharynx and helps drain secretions from the tympanic cavity to the pharynx. If the eustachian tube is blocked, mucus collects in the middle ear and causes otitis media. Due to untreated and well-monitored acute otitis media, it will become Chronic Otitis media, Chronic mastoid otitis. Otitis media after infectious infections: such as flu, measles. Otitis media due to pressure trauma,...

2. Sore throat

Viêm họng cấp
Viêm họng ở trẻ em phổ biến hơn do sức đề kháng của trẻ còn yếu, khả năng chống lại tác nhân gây bệnh chưa cao

Inflammation of the pharynx in the pharynx, adults will have symptoms such as inflammation of the mucous membrane of the pharynx, anterior column, posterior column of tonsils, and posterior wall of the pharynx. There may be pseudomembranous skin in the throat and tonsils, sore throat, thirst, body aches. Inflamed lymph nodes in the jaw angle, fever, chills, headache.
Compared with adults, pharyngitis in children is more common because the child's resistance is still weak and the ability to fight pathogens is not high. Common pharyngitis in children includes:
Acute pharyngitis : The condition improves after a few days and begins to clear up after 7-10 days. Chronic pharyngitis (granulomatous pharyngitis, purulent pharyngitis): The disease lasts for a long time, does not go away, tends to recur many times Acute pharyngitis is inflammation of the entire mucosal layer covering the surface of the pharynx. In both adults and children, the cause of acute pharyngitis is usually a virus or bacteria. Acute pharyngitis usually clears up on its own after 5-7 days in adults and older children, 1-2 weeks in young children, and rarely let it go unnoticed. complications again. Viruses can be the cause of acute pharyngitis or upper respiratory infections, such as the common cold, pharyngitis caused by viruses does not need antibiotic treatment, the disease will clear up on its own, just a few days. Supportive treatment such as: rest, gargle, reduce fever, relieve pain. Chronic pharyngitis is a diffuse inflammation of the pharynx, very common and often associated with rhinitis, chronic sinusitis or sometimes with chronic laryngitis and tracheobronchitis.

3. Rhinitis

Rhinitis (VMX) is an inflammation of the lining of the nose and paranasal sinuses, caused by many different causes such as bacterial infections, viruses, allergies, fungi, ... common diseases in children under 6 year old. Depending on the course of the disease, rhinosinusitis is divided into three types:
Acute rhinosinusitis lasting less than 4 weeks Subacute rhinosinusitis lasting from 4 to 8 weeks Chronic rhinosinusitis lasting at least from 8 to 12 weeks regardless of treatment Rhinosinusitis in children is common in children under 6 years old, with allergic rhinitis, VA, and tonsillitis. The disease often begins in children who are thin, malnourished, or have low-grade fever, have allergies, often have upper respiratory tract infections, which cannot be cured, leading to sinusitis.
In adults, chronic rhinosinusitis is inflammation of the lining of the nose and sinuses with symptoms: dull pain in the face, stuffy nose, decreased smell, cough, snorting sputum, looking at the nose shows the middle slit, sometimes Both upper slits have pus. Patients may have fever, poor concentration, fatigue. These symptoms persist for more than 12 weeks.
Viêm mũi
Viêm mũi xoang là tình trạng viêm niêm mạc mũi và các xoang cạnh mũi, thường hay gặp ở trẻ em dưới 6 tuổi

4. Sleep apnea

Sleep apnea syndrome is a common disease today, potentially dangerous and even fatal complications. However, this syndrome is often undiagnosed, most patients do not know they are sick because apnea occurs only during sleep.
Most patients with sleep apnea go to the doctor because of common symptoms such as headache, fatigue... If doctors are not sleep specialists, they often think little about and undetectable. When children are sick, the most common symptoms are wheezing, loud snoring, apnea, restlessness, restlessness, frequent awakenings from sleep. Some children have nightmares or bedwetting. During the day, children often have symptoms of drowsiness, increased overactivity. Children often have comorbidities such as obesity or malnutrition.

5. Tonsillitis

The tonsils are an easy place for inflammation in children. If not treated early, it will cause local complications such as abscess around the tonsils or distant complications such as rheumatic heart disease, acute glomerulonephritis, acute rheumatic fever, or systemic complications such as sepsis. The disease is easy to detect and easy to treat.
Clinical manifestations are usually high fever, painful swallowing, sharp pain in swallowing, difficulty eating.

6. Voice disorder

Voice disorder is a disease that makes it difficult to make sounds. A few other terms that can describe voice changes include: Whisper, rough voice, hoarse voice, weak voice, breathless voice.
Hoarseness is a symptom of a voice impairment or disorder. Any patient with hoarseness lasting more than 3 weeks should undergo laryngoscopy to detect vocal cord lesions.

7. Allergic Rhinitis

Allergic rhinitis is an inflammation of the nasal mucosa and sinuses manifested by sneezing, stuffy, itchy and runny nose, is mediated by antibodies and occurs due to exposure to airborne allergens, inflammation. Allergic rhinitis is of two types:
Seasonal allergic rhinitis: Mainly caused by pollen and spores Year-round allergic rhinitis: Commonly caused by house dust Otolaryngology is the beginning of many diseases, Many people believe that ENT disease in children and ENT disease in adults are normal and sometimes subjective diseases that don't need to be treated and will go away on their own, but few people know that ENT disease is the beginning. leading to many diseases affecting health.
Common disease-causing factors due to erratic weather, polluted environment, and dust are the main factors causing the disease. Using headphones at high volume, many people who go to the doctor suffer from ear injuries caused by listening to high frequency frequencies that, without treatment, can cause deafness or hearing loss. Smoking, drinking too much alcohol, tobacco is an easy cause of throat cancer, too high a concentration of alcohol, not good quality will damage the larynx, this is an opportunity for many pathogens to attack the roof. pharynx, causing rhinitis, pharyngitis, tonsillitis. As a key area of ​​Vinmec Medical system, Pediatrics Department always brings satisfaction to customers and is highly appreciated by industry experts with:
Gathering a team of leading pediatricians: including leading experts with high professional qualifications (professors, associate professors, doctorates, masters), experienced, worked at major hospitals such as Bach Mai, 108.. Doctors All are well-trained, professional, with a mind - range, understanding young psychology. In addition to domestic pediatric specialists, the Department of Pediatrics also has the participation of foreign experts (Japan, Singapore, Australia, USA) who are always pioneers in applying the latest and most effective treatment regimens. . Comprehensive services: In the field of Pediatrics, Vinmec provides a series of continuous medical examination and treatment services from Newborn to Pediatric and Vaccine,... according to international standards to help parents take care of their baby's health from birth to childhood. from birth to adulthood Specialized techniques: Vinmec has successfully deployed many specialized techniques to make the treatment of difficult diseases in Pediatrics more effective: neurosurgery - skull surgery, stem cell transplantation. blood in cancer treatment. Professional care: In addition to understanding children's psychology, Vinmec also pays special attention to the children's play space, helping them to have fun and get used to the hospital's environment, cooperate in treatment, improve the efficiency of medical treatment.

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