First aid for abdominal injuries according to the guidance of the Ministry of Health

The article was professionally consulted by Specialist Doctor I Huynh Kim Long - Emergency Resuscitation Doctor - Emergency Resuscitation Department - Vinmec Da Nang International General Hospital.
Abdominal injuries due to traffic accidents account for a high rate of up to 70% compared with other causes if not treated promptly. So how to properly provide first aid for abdominal trauma to minimize the risk of death before the patient is taken to the hospital?

1. What is Abdominal Trauma?

Abdominal trauma is a common emergency, including blunt abdominal trauma and open abdominal trauma. Abdominal trauma is often in the context of severe multiple trauma, caused by direct trauma or puncture wounds. Abdominal trauma is common mainly due to traffic accidents, occupational accidents, and accidents in daily life. Rarely, open abdominal injuries are caused by knives, scissors or sharp objects penetrating the victim's body.
The risk of death is high if there is rupture of solid organs such as liver, spleen, blood vessels ... or with other injuries in pelvic fracture, traumatic brain injury. When it is determined that there is an abdominal injury, it is advisable to treat it quickly and contact medical support to transfer the victim to the nearest hospital as possible.
Inside the abdomen contains many important organs of the digestive system, urinary system, some other organs such as the adrenal glands and large blood vessels. In which, especially important are organs such as the liver located under the right flank and under the nose of the sternum, the spleen located under the left flank. When there is a wound or trauma to this area, attention should be paid because the ruptured organs will bleed profusely, endangering life immediately. In addition, pelvic fracture can cause up to 2/3 of the body's blood loss, or more and a high risk of death, so if the patient has an injury to this area, it is necessary to stabilize the victim and seek medical intervention. support.
Currently, blunt abdominal trauma is more common than open abdominal trauma, sometimes there are also combined injuries including both types of abdominal trauma.
xử lý vết thương tai nạn giao thông
Chấn thương bụng thường gặp chủ yếu với nguyên nhân tai nạn giao thông, tai nạn trong lao động,...

2. Recognizing abdominal trauma

The mechanism of abdominal trauma occurs due to the sudden deceleration that causes the viscera in the body to move at different speeds, leading to organ tearing. In addition, the crushing when an accident occurs or the sudden increase in pressure in the abdominal cavity also has the risk of damaging the organs.
To know if the patient has an abdominal injury or not is often difficult because the patient may have many coordinated injuries, distracting first-aiders.
Cases of open abdominal trauma are easy to recognize when seen as follows: Wounds tearing the skin, protruding viscera, large omentum, bleeding outside, or building close to the chest wall, the victim's abdomen complains of pain, and the abdomen is distended.
In case of closed abdominal trauma, it is necessary to think of abdominal trauma when seeing:
Causes of trauma directly hitting the abdominal wall Scratches or bruises on the chest wall of the abdomen or in the abdomen The victim has abdominal pain, abdominal distension. .. After an injury, the patient is dizzy, sweating, passing stools or vomiting bright red blood
Đau bụng trên rốn
Sang chấn va đập trực tiếp vào thành bụng cũng có thể là nguyên nhân gây chấn thương vùng bụng

3. First aid for abdominal injuries properly

3.1 First aid for abdominal trauma for victims Abdominal injuries often have a high risk of death if not treated promptly. Here are some things you should know about first aid for a person with suspected abdominal trauma:
Lay victim comfortably in a cool, spacious place for monitoring and management Loosen clothing, belt Lie down Safe side position if patient is vomiting or tends to vomit and should be placed on left side Perform ABC procedures: Airway, Breathing, Circulation and other management if necessary If there is shock, keep the head low, legs high, temporarily warm the victim. Open wounds, bleeding, bandaged with sterile gauze or clean clothes Exposed internal organs: intestines, large omentum ... absolutely do not try to push in but cover with clean gauze and water with saline physiological continuum. If it is not possible to use bowls, small plastic pots, glass ... upside down and kept closed for transfer, this helps to limit the infection somewhat. Foreign objects, piercing weapons must not be removed, but left in place because deliberately removing the foreign body can cause the patient to lose more blood, endangering their life. Absolutely do not let the victim eat or drink during this time. Do not move the victim until medical help arrives if the casualty is unstable. 3.2 Call for medical assistance Call for emergency medical assistance: 115 or the nearest medical facility. When calling, you should provide complete medical information about the victim, the condition of the wound for advice on handling and preparing the right equipment and staff for the emergency. If the injury is too severe, do not arbitrarily move the victim, but should wait for an ambulance and a team of professional doctors to handle it, avoiding the case that taking the victim to the emergency room makes their injury dangerous. more dangerous. Notice clearly if there is suspicion of solid organ rupture, puncture wound or protrusion, the patient is in shock.
Gọi hỗ trợ cấp cứu y tế 115 hoặc cơ sở y tế gần nhất khi có người bệnh bị chấn thương vùng bụng
Abdominal trauma can be life-threatening if not treated promptly. Therefore, in urgent cases, it is necessary to call for medical assistance and provide first aid in time so that the patient can avoid life-threatening danger.
Vinmec International General Hospital is a prestigious medical address so that patients can completely rest assured for examination and treatment at the Hospital.
The team of emergency doctors and nurses at the Faculty are intensively and professionally trained, able to receive and handle urgent cases of serious patients Always have coordination with all other specialties such as: Department of gastroenterology, thoracic... quickly. There are modern equipment in diagnosis and treatment. Vinmec International General Hospital has given emergency treatment and treated many cases in emergency cases, traffic accidents and injuries, severe blood loss shock. Accordingly, the examination, emergency and resuscitation procedures for patients at Vinmec are all carried out methodically and according to the correct procedure, providing a high treatment prognosis and quick recovery time.

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Reference source: Department of Medical Examination and Treatment - Ministry of Health

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