First aid for dangerous situations involving high temperatures

Posted by Specialist Doctor II Nguyen Xuan Ninh - Emergency Resuscitation Department - Vinmec Central Park International General Hospital
Conditions that are dangerously heat-related can progress quickly if not recognized and treated promptly. That's why first aid is so important.

1. First aid for situations where the body is dehydrated

Anyone working, exercising, or playing in extreme weather or temperature conditions can be dangerous, even fatal, if not given timely care and emergency care.
Overexertion in the body in high temperature conditions will cause the victim to lose water and cause symptoms such as vomiting, diarrhea, fever, dry mouth, dizziness, lethargy, decreased urine output... If not treated early, dehydration can lead to heat stroke.
In this case, the person performing first aid needs to contact the medical staff immediately, while waiting for the ambulance to arrive, make sure the victim drinks and eats enough to rehydrate.

2. First aid for heat cramps (heat cramps)

Heat spasticity is a muscle spasm (cramp) that usually occurs in the muscles of the calves, arms, abdomen, and back. Signs of muscle spasticity from heat include:
Muscle spasms (cramps); Sweating; Headache . Heat-related muscle spasms are a sign that the victim has a heat-related problem. This condition will get worse if the patient is not treated appropriately.
Actions to help give first aid to a victim of heat spasticity:
Get a first aid kit and wear personal protective equipment; Give the victim rest and cool down; Have the victim drink sugary solutions and electrolytes such as juices, sports drinks or plain water if these are not available; If the victim is able to tolerate it, use a bag of ice and water surrounded by a towel, and place it on top of the spasticity, up to 20 minutes.

3. Heat exhaustion

Heat spasticity can quickly turn into heat exhaustion if not treated promptly. Signs of heat exhaustion are similar to those of heat stroke, including:
Nausea; Dizzy ; Oops; Muscle spasms; Feeling dizzy, faint, or tired; Sweat a lot. Actions to help provide first aid to victims of heat exhaustion:
Get a first aid kit and wear personal protective equipment; Call an ambulance; Have the victim lie down in a cool place; Remove victim's clothing as much as possible; Cool victim by spraying cool water. If cool water is not available, place cooled-wet towels or clothing on the victim's neck, armpits, groin; If the casualty is conscious and able to drink, give the casualty a sugary and electrolyte solution such as a sports drink, fruit juice, or plain water if these are not available.

4. Thermal shock

Sốc nhiệt
Sốc nhiệt là tình trạng nguy hiểm, cần cấp cứu kịp thời
Heat-related illness can progress quickly if not recognized and treated. Heat stroke is a potentially life-threatening condition.
It is important when giving first aid to a heat stroke victim to cool down immediately, time is counted in minutes. If you cannot immerse the victim in water, try to cool them down by spraying them with cool water.
If casualty resumes normal activity, stop cooling immediately because if cooling continues, victim is likely to develop hypothermia.
Signs of heat stroke are:
Lethargy; Feeling faint, tired; Dizzy; Fainting ; Nausea, vomiting; Muscle spasticity; Convulsions. Actions to help heat stroke victims include:
Call 911; Immerse the victim in cool water (bring the water up to the neck if possible). If soaking is not possible, spray with cold water. If the casualty is unresponsive and is not breathing or is only yawning, CPR should be performed until paramedics arrive. In short, as soon as the victim is seen to be in danger due to hot temperature-related situations, it is necessary to perform first aid actions and then quickly contact the nearest medical address for timely support. .

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References: First aid - American Heart Association

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