Human Anatomy: Blood, Cells, Plasma, Circulatory

In the human body, blood plays an extremely important role, it helps to provide oxygen, nutrients as well as helps to remove waste from the body. Currently, there are many remarkable forms of blood diseases, such as leukemia, anemia, multiple myeloma, iron overload,...

1. Overview of blood in the human body

Blood in the human body is a constantly circulating fluid that provides nutrients, oxygen, and helps eliminate waste. Blood is mostly liquid, with many cells and proteins suspended in it, giving it a denser texture than pure water. In the body of a normal person there is about 5 liters of blood (more than a gallon).
Another liquid, called plasma, makes up about half of the composition of blood. Plasma contains proteins that help blood clot, and it also transports substances through the blood and performs a number of other tasks. In addition, plasma also contains glucose (sugar) and other soluble nutrients.
About half of the blood volume in the body will consist of the following blood cells:
Red blood cells provide and transport oxygen throughout the tissues White blood cells help fight infection Platelets are the smaller cells, which help the blood to clot Normally, blood is carried through blood vessels, including veins and arteries. Besides, the blood in the body can avoid clotting in the blood vessels thanks to their smoothness as well as the delicate balance of clotting factors.

2. Some common blood diseases

The following are common blood disorders or diseases, including:
Hemorrhage (bleeding): Blood is visibly leaking out of a blood vessel, possibly from a penetrating wound through the skin. However, bleeding inside the intestines may not be immediately apparent. Hematoma: A collection of blood inside the body's tissues. Internal bleeding often causes a hematoma. Leukemia: This is a form of blood cancer, in which white blood cells show signs of abnormally multiplying and circulating in the blood. Abnormal white blood cells can make the body more susceptible to dangerous infections. Multiple myeloma: A type of blood cancer of the plasma cells, similar to leukemia. People with problems such as anemia, high blood calcium levels, or kidney failure are more likely to develop multiple myeloma. Lymphoma: Another form of blood cancer in which white blood cells multiply abnormally inside the lymph nodes and other body tissues. Lymphoma can cause tissues to become enlarged and disrupt blood functions in the body, leading to a higher risk of multiple organ failure. Anemia: Usually occurs when the number of red blood cells in the blood is lower than normal. People with anemia may experience symptoms such as fatigue and shortness of breath. Hemolytic anemia: This is an anemia caused by the rapid destruction of a large number of red blood cells (hemolysis). One of the main causes of hemolytic anemia is a faulty or malfunctioning immune system. Hemochromatosis: A disorder that causes an excess of iron in the blood. When iron is deposited and accumulated in the pancreas, liver, and other organs, it can cause liver problems or diabetes. Sickle cell disease: An inherited condition in which red blood cells are deformed to look like a crescent instead of their original disc shape. When blood cells in the body are deformed and deposited in tissues, it causes pain as well as other serious damage to organs. Sepsis: This is a very serious blood infection that often requires hospitalization and requires continuous intravenous antibiotics. Malaria: An infection of red blood cells caused by Plasmodium - a parasite that causes malaria transmitted by mosquitoes. Malaria can cause fevers, chills and lead to serious organ damage. Thrombocytopenia: A condition in which the number of platelets in the blood becomes abnormally low. Severe cases of thrombocytopenia can lead to bleeding. Leukopenia: An abnormal decrease in the number of white blood cells in the blood. This condition can make it difficult for the body's immune system to fight off infections. Disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC): Uncontrollable bleeding and clotting occur at the same time in very small blood vessels. DIC is often caused by cancer or a serious infection. Hemophilia: This disease occurs when there is an inherited deficiency of certain clotting proteins. Hemophilia can cause frequent bleeding or uncontrolled bleeding. Hypercoagulable states: Many conditions can make the blood in the body more likely to clot. This can increase the risk of heart attack, stroke, or blood clots in the legs and lungs. Polycythemia vera: An abnormally high number of red blood cells in the blood. Polycythemia vera can occur due to low blood oxygen levels or is similar to a cancer-like condition. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT): A blood clot occurs in the posterior vein, usually in the leg. DVT is very dangerous because blood clots can separate and travel to the lungs, causing pulmonary embolism (PE). Myocardial Infarction (MI): Often called a cerebrovascular accident or stroke. This condition occurs when a blood clot suddenly develops in one of the coronary arteries that supply blood to the heart.
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3. What types of blood tests are there?

Here are the most common types of blood tests, including:
Complete blood count (CBC): Helps analyze the levels of red blood cells, platelets and white blood cells in the blood. This test will be done through an automated cytometer. Blood smear: Drops of blood will be spread on a slide on a microscope, then examined in a laboratory. Through this test can detect leukemia, malaria, anemia and some other blood disorders. Blood group test: Helps to check compatibility before receiving blood transfusion. The main blood types, including A, B, O and AB, are determined by protein markers (antigens) present on the surface of red blood cells. Coombs test: This is a type of blood test that looks for antibodies that are able to bind to and destroy red blood cells. This test is usually recommended for pregnant women and people with anemia. Blood culture: Helps look for infection in the blood. If bacteria or other organisms are present, they can multiply in the blood sample being tested and help your doctor identify them. Mixed studies: This type of blood test helps determine what's causing your blood to become too thin (or to have an abnormal ability to prevent clotting). The patient's blood will be mixed with normal blood in the same test tube, through this blood mixture will help the doctor diagnose a specific disease. Bone marrow biopsy: In this test, a doctor inserts a thick needle into a large bone (usually in the hip) and withdraws a sample of certain bone marrow for examination. A bone marrow biopsy can help identify blood conditions that simple blood tests cannot.
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4. Methods to help treat blood problems

Blood disorders or diseases are usually treated with the following methods:
Chemotherapy: This is a method of using drugs to help remove or kill cancer cells. Blood diseases such as lymphomas and leukemias are often treated with chemotherapy. Blood transfusion: The donor's red blood cells are separated from their plasma and stored in a small bag. The patient will receive an infusion of concentrated red blood cells to replace the lost blood. Platelet Transfusion: The donor's platelets are separated from the rest of the blood and stored in a plastic bag. Platelet transfusion is usually indicated for cases where the platelet count drops to an alarming level. Fresh frozen plasma: The donor plasma is separated from the blood cells in the body and stored by freezing. A plasma transfusion improves blood clotting and prevents or stops bleeding caused by clotting problems. Freeze infusion: Specific proteins are separated from the blood and frozen in a small volume of liquid. Coagulation infusion can help replace low levels of specific clotting proteins, which are common in people with hemophilia. Anticoagulants: These are medications that thin the blood and prevent blood clotting in people at high risk for blood clots. Some of the most commonly used anticoagulants include enoxaparin (Lovenox), heparin, and warfarin (Coumadin). Antiplatelet drugs: These drugs include clopidogrel (Plavix) and aspirin, which interfere with platelet function and help prevent blood clots and factors that contribute to heart attack and stroke. . Antibiotics: These include drugs that kill bacteria and parasites, which can treat blood infections caused by these organisms. Erythropoietin: Erythropoietin is a hormone produced by the kidneys that stimulates the production of red blood cells in the body. The use of drugs that stimulate red blood cells can help improve the symptoms of anemia. Hemodialysis: In people who have problems with having too much blood in the body, such as polycythemia vera or hemoglobinopathy, the excess blood can be removed by hemodialysis.

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Reference source: webmd.com

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