Is swollen lymph node syndrome dangerous?

The article is professionally consulted by Master, Doctor Le Thi Minh Huong - Emergency Medicine Doctor - Department of Resuscitation - Emergency - Vinmec Nha Trang International General Hospital. The doctor has more than 06 years of experience in examining and treating internal diseases, emergency and emergency resuscitation.
Inguinal lymphadenopathy is an inflammation of the lymph nodes in the groin area, usually caused by a sexually transmitted infection.

1. What is inguinal lymphadenopathy?

The groin is the area between the legs and the pelvis. The inguinal lymph nodes are divided into two groups: the superficial group and the deep group. The lymph nodes are responsible for draining lymphatic fluid back into the circulatory system. Swollen inguinal lymph nodes are a symptom of diseases of the legs, lower abdomen, anus, and external genitalia.
Inguinal lymphadenopathy is an inflammation of the lymph nodes in the groin area, which may be painful and may contain pus. When these nodes burst, they look like sores in the groin area. Inguinal lymphadenopathy, which can affect both men and women, is usually caused by a sexually transmitted infection.
The lymph nodes may be swollen on one or both sides of the groin. The normal lymph nodes will be about 1cm in size, and if the size is 1.5cm or more, it will be considered abnormal.

2. Causes of swollen inguinal lymph nodes

There are many possible causes of swollen lymph nodes in the groin, but the most common causes are infections, cancer, or medications and vaccines.
2.1 Infection Systemic infections that can cause swollen lymph nodes in the groin such as infections of the legs or genitals include:
STDs such as the spirochetes that cause syphilis, Chancroid causes chancroid, gonorrhea, herpes,... Epstein-Barr virus infection. Plague. Toxoplasma infection, may be accompanied by some other symptoms such as aches, headache, fever, ...
Toxoplasma gondii
Nhiễm Toxoplasma gây sưng hạch bẹn
2.2 Tumors and cancer Tumors and many cancers in the area where lymph is drained by the inguinal lymph nodes cause swelling such as:
Leucemia: cancer of the blood-forming organs including the lymphatic system and bone marrow . Lymphoma, also known as lymphoma. There are two types of lymphoma as Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Tumors are pelvic in nature and can metastasize to the anus and vagina and cause swollen lymph nodes in the groin. Testicular cancer . 2.3 Vaccines and medications Some vaccines can cause swollen glands, such as measles, mumps, typhoid, and rubella. Drugs that cause swollen lymph nodes as side effects, but very rarely: allopurinol for gout, penicillin, phenytoin and carbamazepine for bipolar disorder and epilepsy, pyrimethamine for malaria,... 2.4 Systemic diseases Systemic diseases that cause swollen lymph nodes in the groin such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, sarcoidosis,...
In addition, lymphadenitis, tuberculosis can also cause swollen lymph nodes in the inguinal region.
viêm khớp dạng thấp
Viêm khớp dạng thấp có thể gây sưng hạch vùng bẹn

3. Clinical symptoms

Common symptoms of swollen lymph nodes in the groin include:
Enlarged lymph nodes in the groin on one or both sides. Pre-existing or associated sores, vesicles, and papules of the anal and genital areas. Other manifestations of the skin or mucous membranes include: pustules, papules, purpura, especially in wounds in the palms and soles. Fever or no fever.

4. Is the inguinal lymphadenopathy dangerous?

Enlarged lymph nodes are a symptom of some infections such as syphilis, chancroid and lymphangioma, etc. Therefore, the doctor can rely on the examination of the lymph nodes, the condition of the lymph nodes along with other symptoms. other to diagnose these diseases.
4.1. Syphilis lymphadenitis in stage I: lymph nodes are often enlarged, mobile, and most commonly localized lymph nodes are on one side of the groin, one of which is larger than the others.
Syphilis in stage II: The lymph nodes spread to the groin and many other places such as: neck, armpit, under the jaw. In addition, the patient is accompanied by other symptoms including: papules, mucosal patches, rash, hair loss, possibly fever...
4.2. Inflammation of the lymph nodes due to chancroid In patients with chancroid, the inflammation of the lymph nodes will appear after 2 weeks when there is a sore throat. Lymphadenitis usually occurs on only one side of the groin. The lymph nodes are red, hot, swollen, and painful. The ruptured lymph node is chocolate-colored, forming a long-healing ulcer with a jagged edge.
4.3. Venous granulomatous lymphadenitis Venereal granulomatous lymphadenitis usually appears days, or weeks, after the appearance of blisters, small papules, or sores. Lymphadenitis is usually present on one side of the groin. Inflammatory nodes form a mass, and are not mobile, soften, then drain pus into many fistulas or communicating tunnels. Long-standing disease may be accompanied by inflammation of the anus, rectum, anal stricture, and perianal fistula.
4.4 Supportive tests Diagnostic tests such as serological tests used to diagnose syphilis include: RPR or VDRL, TPHA.
sưng hạch bẹn
Hình ảnh sưng hạch bẹn

5. How to treat swollen inguinal lymph nodes?

For all cases of inguinal lymphadenopathy suspected of being caused by a sexually transmitted disease, health professionals should identify and treat both sexual partners. To treat the symptoms of swollen lymph nodes, the doctor needs to find the cause of the swollen lymph nodes due to a certain disease. However, swollen inguinal lymph nodes are not always caused by an infection, but can be benign.
The swollen, tender, swollen lymph nodes can be aspirated through the healthy skin as indicated by the doctor. If the incision and drainage of these nodes may slow healing, the doctor will consider whether or not to perform aspiration.
Currently, sexually transmitted infections are increasing in the community, especially among young people who have unsafe sex activities. In particular, some common diseases such as syphilis, chancroid and venereal lymphangioma easily lead to the risk of inguinal lymphadenopathy syndrome.
Medical staff need to provide information and advice to patients with some necessary content such as: consequences of the disease when not treated properly, need to adhere to the prescribed treatment regimen and come to rehab. check back by appointment.
In particular, it is recommended that the patient inform his or her sexual partner and treat both sexual partners. Patients should be encouraged and instructed to use condoms to prevent HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections.
In summary, swollen lymph nodes in the groin is a symptom of a certain disease and is usually a sexually transmitted disease, an infection, etc. Therefore, when there are abnormal signs, it is necessary to seek immediate medical attention. medical facilities for timely examination and treatment.

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