Spoon-shaped concave nails: Causes and mechanisms of pathogenesis

When nails change color, shape or appear irregularities, it can be an alarm signal that the body is having problems. Regular nail exams help detect potentially serious conditions early, including spoon-shaped concave nails, also known as spoon nails.

1. What are concave spoon-shaped nails?

Dr. Amy Derrick - Lecturer in Dermatology at Northwestern University in the US, said that there are more than 30 signs on the nails that reflect health problems, including the phenomenon of spoon-shaped nails (koilonychias). or you call it spoon nails.
Spoon-shaped concave nail is a phenomenon where the middle of the fingernail (or toenail) is concave, the part around the edge of the nail is raised, looking like the shape of a spoon. Spoon-shaped concave nails are capable of holding a drop of water on the nail.
With this condition, the patient's nails become thinner, can crack, and the outer part of the nail easily separates from the nail bed. Spoon-shaped nail dimples most often occur in the fingernails, but sometimes this symptom also appears in the toenails.

2. Spoon-shaped concave nail formation mechanism

The mechanism that causes spatula nail beds has not been clearly defined. It is thought to be related to the softening of the bed and nail matrix, but the mechanism underlying the disease is still poorly understood.
Móng tay lõm
Móng lõm hình thìa là hiện tượng phần giữa của móng tay (hoặc móng chân) bị lõm xuống, phần xung quanh cạnh của móng tay lại vênh lên

3. Causes of spoon-shaped concave nails

The most common cause of spoon-shaped nails is an iron deficiency or anemia. Patients with spoon-shaped concave nails often have lower-than-normal levels of red blood cells in their blood.
Besides, spoon-shaped concave nails can also be the result of trauma caused by chemotherapy or radiation for cancer, patients are often exposed to oily solvents, cleaning agents or by the body. inability to absorb essential nutrients. Hairdressers can also get this condition due to the harmful effects of the hair products they come into contact with on a daily basis.
Spoon nails are often associated with chronic diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, malnutrition, protein deficiency, vitamin deficiency, psoriasis or thyroid disorders. , Raynaud's syndrome ...
Another cause of spoon-shaped nails that can be found in many people is genetic or environmental. A study in older adults found that more than 47% of older adults had ingrown toenails, and manual workers were at a higher risk of developing this condition.
According to the results of another group, spoon-shaped concave nails are common in 32% of children living in rural areas and occur in 17% of children living in urban areas. This is explained by the fact that children in rural areas are at high risk of foot injuries due to often walking barefoot or having to soak their feet in water.

4. Spoon-shaped concave nail treatments

Người bệnh có thể bổ sung chất sắt trong khẩu phần ăn nếu nguyên nhân bệnh bắt nguồn từ thiếu máu
In order to apply the right treatment method and get rid of the disease early, when detecting symptoms, the patient needs to see a doctor to be diagnosed to determine the exact cause of the disease. If the cause of the nail concave is solved, this situation will soon be relieved and disappear.
If the concave nails are caused by anemia, the patient should change the diet to supplement iron in the daily diet. Some foods rich in iron should be consumed strongly such as fortified red meat, beef, meat of seafood species, peas. In addition, the patient needs to eat more foods containing vitamin C. Vitamin C will help the body absorb iron from food much better.
In case of spoon-shaped concave nails because the body cannot absorb vitamin B12 from food, the patient can supplement B12 with oral tablets as directed by the treating doctor.

5. Spoon-shaped nail care

Patients with spatula should keep their nails dry and clean them daily to avoid infection in the affected area. Especially give up the habit of biting nails completely. It is advisable to keep nails short and to apply lotions after bathing to keep them moist. Wear skin and nail protection gloves when performing tasks that require contact with chemicals or oily solvents.

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