What happens during a surgery?
Unlike medical examination, when performing surgery, the patient is anesthetized, so he is completely unaware of what is going on around him. There are in fact very strict procedures to be followed, the reason of what is happening may not be obvious. In this article, we will share the step-by-step process of a typical surgery.
1. Preparation for surgery
As soon as you walk into the operating room at the hospital, a surgical team is formed, which is a group of experienced professionals who will work together to provide the best care solutions for the patient. The surgical team includes:
1.1. Surgeon or oncologist
This is the doctor who will lead the surgical team. The surgeon's specialty depends on the type and stage of the cancer. Below are a few examples of surgeon specialties, but they are not exhaustive. General surgeons can perform many different types of cancer surgery.
Urological surgeon or urologist. These specialists specialize in treating urinary tract cancers with surgery. Urinary tract cancers include: prostate cancer, testicular cancer, bladder cancer, and kidney cancer. Neurosurgeon. Treatment of brain cancer with surgery. Thoracic surgeon. Treatment of lung cancer with surgery. Dermatological surgery. Surgical treatment of skin cancer.
As a doctor who will take care of patients before, during and after surgery with anesthetic or anesthetic methods, collectively known as anesthesia method. Anesthesia is a drug that blocks the brain's perception of pain during surgery and the patient goes to sleep. The anesthesiologist during surgery also monitors vital signs such as breathing rate, heart rate, and blood pressure. They can identify and manage problems associated with analgesia during surgery and resuscitation.
1.3. Anesthesia and resuscitation nursing
As a nurse monitoring vital signs, adjusting the necessary anesthesia under the direction of an anesthesiologist.
1.4. Operating room nursing.
As a nurse assisting the doctor during surgery.
1.5. Recovery room nurses and staff
Resuscitation nurses care and monitor patients after surgery.
1.6. Other healthcare team
Other members include pharmacists, social workers, nutritionists and physiotherapists.
In addition, forms to fill out and details to access the computer system, including confirming patient coverage, ensuring that the patient understands and agrees to the surgery as well as desired by the patient in the worst case scenario. This step usually ends when you are given a wristband with your medication allergy name and number.
Next, you will be taken to a room where you can change into a hospital outfit. Patients are asked to remove any jewelry and usually put all of the patient's belongings in a bag.
When the patient is ready, several other tests will be performed so that the surgical team has more information about your preoperative stable vital signs such as heart rate and body temperature. A few examples of tests are listed below:
Blood test to determine a patient's blood type in case a blood transfusion is required. Other blood and urine tests to assess the risk of bleeding and infection, and to check liver and kidney function. ECG. CT scan. Magnetic Resonance. Supersonic. Bone scintigraphy. PET scan. The patient will also be asked to verbally confirm his or her identity and to ensure that everyone is at the same time of surgery. In addition, patients are advised to quit smoking at least 2 weeks before surgery. Quitting smoking helps to recover faster after surgery. Talk to your doctor about what you should and shouldn't eat and drink for 24 hours before surgery. Patients should let the surgical team know about any medications and supplements, diets, or herbs they are taking. The doctor and anesthesiologist will tell the patient whether to continue taking those medications before surgery and when to stop taking them. Especially currently taking anticoagulants, high blood pressure and diabetes. Some other notes before performing surgery.
Patients should check with their insurance provider to find out if they are covered before surgery. If there is a risk of blood loss during surgery and if the surgery will be done after more than 4 weeks, ask the surgical team if blood needs to be drawn and stored first. Consider bringing a family member along on the day of surgery. After the surgery, the doctor will give them updates on how the surgery went. Arrange for care during the recovery period, including transportation home from the hospital. If you have any questions, ask the surgical team. Also, make sure you are given care instructions after returning home. Consider making preoperative appointments. Ask when the patient can return to normal physical activity after surgery The last step that most patients remember before surgery is to receive an intravenous infusion and start the anesthetic steps during the first surgery. If the patient is required to be under general anesthesia, the patient will be given medication that will make the patient completely unconscious during the surgery. Some surgeries can be performed with a local anesthetic, so the patient remains awake during the entire surgery. The medical team will explain their anesthetic method and patients should ask questions if they do not understand what to expect.
2. What Happens in the Operating Room
Depending on the surgery the patient is undergoing, the patient may need a haircut. The entire area being operated on needs to be as clean as possible. In some cases, a breathing tube may be placed in the patient's throat and the ventilator will help the patient breathe.
Then the surgeon makes the first incision and the blood vessels are clamped where you are bleeding. This is when the surgical team looks inside, either with their own eyes or a special monitor to magnify and clarify the organ structures that need surgery. Here, the surgical team performs whatever task is necessary, whether it is repairing damage or removing the organ a patient is experiencing.
If the patient loses too much blood during surgery, the patient can receive a blood transfusion to replenish the lost blood. When the surgical team completes the task, the surgical team closes all the incisions they have made, with sutures or staples, and prepares the patient for the recovery phase.
3. The process after surgery
Usually, no matter how long a surgery is, if you've been given general anesthesia, the patient still won't be able to wake up in the recovery room. This is where the surgical team will remove your breathing tube and monitor your recovery. The surgical team will try to control the pain after surgery here with strong medications. Therefore, the patient should try to talk to the doctor and nurse about how painful the incision is.
When the surgical team is satisfied that the patient is recovering well, the patient will be moved to a room where you can rest. In some cases, the patient won't even have to spend a night in the hospital, but the length of stay will be dictated by the patient's medical condition. The surgical team will closely monitor the patient's body temperature, blood pressure, and oxygen levels.
The following recommendations from the surgical team can help the patient recover quickly:
Ask your doctor about physical activity after surgery. Walking as soon as the patient can is important to avoid blood clots and get the blood flowing. Ask for a referral to a physical therapist, if needed. Physical therapy can be an important part of recovery. It can help build strength and flexibility and some patients can start it the day after surgery. Patients can receive an exercise program at home, but it is important to follow specific instructions given by the doctor and physical therapist Perform deep breathing exercises to help re-expand the patient's lungs and reduce the risk of pneumonia if recommended by the doctor. Do not smoke while recovering. If the patient is a smoker, ask the health care team about how to help quit smoking. Talk to your nurse or hospital dietitian about getting the right nutrition and returning to normal foods. Let your doctor and nurse know if you are in pain so they can help you manage it. Watch for unusual bleeding, infection, and allergic reactions to anesthesia or medications, including nausea, shortness of breath, and dizziness. The health care team will explain the signs and symptoms to watch for and when to contact them. If the patient has fever, excessive drainage from the surgical skin incision, excessive redness or swelling at the incision site, or persistent nausea and vomiting, contact the care team. Ask your doctor or nurse when and how to change the wound dressing. Although bandages are used to help the incision heal and protect against infection. But keeping the bandage on for too long can slow healing or lead to infection.
4. When is the patient discharged?
When the patient is discharged from the hospital, there may be postoperative therapy such as special drugs, physical therapy or chemotherapy. Make sure the patient is checked for signs to watch for if something goes wrong with the incision. Infection at the surgical site can be a very serious complication.
Finally, the patient should remember to monitor the incision while recovering from surgery. It usually takes several weeks to return to normal function, even after a simple surgery, and sometimes you'll need to visit your doctor to check the progress of the incision or remove sutures or staples.
This is considered a surgical procedure that the patient indicated for surgery will have to undergo.
Currently, Vinmec International General Hospital is the first hospital in Vietnam equipped with the Hybrid Discovery IGS 730 operating room (by GE Healthcare - USA) to ensure the implementation of difficult and complex techniques. This is a modern operating room system, integrating advanced imaging equipment (angiography machine, tomography machine, magnetic resonance imaging machine, background digitized angiography machine...) to bring to the best surgical results as well as to reduce pain and shorten the surgery time for the patient.
Along with modern medical facilities and equipment is a team of experienced experts, doctors, and staff who are well-trained in an international environment. Therefore, patients can completely trust when performing minor surgery or major surgery at Vinmec hospital.
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Reference source: chicagoribune.com - webmd.com