What types of biopsies are there?

Biopsy test is an increasingly popular medical test, especially effective in diagnosing cancer diseases. Biopsy tests have many types such as: staple biopsy, needle biopsy, excisional biopsy, ... suitable for each different pathological conditions.

1. What is a biopsy test?

Biopsy is a medical procedure in which a sample of cells or tissues is taken from a certain part of the body for analysis under a microscope. Biopsy test helps to accurately assess the presence of malignant cells, so it is especially used in diagnosis and staging of cancer.
Biopsy test results also have the most accurate diagnostic meaning, compared with other diagnostic tests such as endoscopy, ultrasound, blood tests, X-rays,...
Biopsy test Currently, it is possible to perform analysis and sampling of tissues and cells from any part of the body such as skin, internal organs, and tissue tumors in difficult locations.

2. What are the types of biopsy tests?

There are many types of biopsy tests currently used in disease diagnosis, including:
2.1. In this procedure, your doctor uses a special stapler to make a small hole in the top layer of your skin. From there, a skin sample is taken for biopsy. The procedure is painless, and your doctor may inject medication or apply a topical numbing cream. Press biopsies are commonly used to diagnose skin diseases.
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2.2. Needle biopsy In this procedure, the doctor uses a long needle, pierced through the skin to take tissue samples from deep-seated organs such as: depending on the bone, kidney, liver, thyroid gland, abnormal tumor, .. Method performed with the support of ultrasound if necessary, using local anesthetic to reduce pain. Needle biopsies are common to take a sample of cells from an organ or subcutaneous tumor.
2.3. Excisional biopsy This biopsy method is especially used to remove tissue samples from tumors, to find abnormal cells. Depending on the location of the tumor, the doctor may administer local or general anesthesia.
2.4. Endoscopic biopsy In this method, the doctor uses an endoscope to look inside the body, from there to find the abnormal area and take a biopsy sample during the procedure. Endoscopic biopsy is often used to take samples of gastric mucosa, duodenum,...
2.5. Biopsy during surgery During surgery, a doctor removes a small sample of tissue for a quick biopsy, to help guide surgery or treatment.

3. How does the biopsy test help diagnose the disease?

Biopsy tests help check for abnormalities of cells or tissues, including:
Function: organs such as liver, kidney,... Structure: deformation, swelling, inflammation,... Biopsy also used to assess the severity of inflammation or grade the cancer. With effective cytological assessment, biopsy helps diagnose medical diseases:
Cancer X-ray and ultrasound results often only help detect abnormal tumors, cannot evaluate benign tumors or tumors. malignant. Biopsy will be done for accurate evaluation.
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Identify infection Biopsy results also help evaluate the infection, the extent of the infection and the type of bacteria causing the disease.
Evaluation of inflammation Biopsy is used to evaluate inflammation, find the cause of inflammation at a specific site and organ in the body.
Assessment of liver status In addition to cancer, biopsy test makes it easier to diagnose cirrhosis, scarred liver, cancer in the liver,... The procedure can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment.
Diagnosis of gastric lesions Endoscopic biopsy is often performed, both to help check for stomach ulcers, anemia, malabsorption, celiac disease and find the cause of the disease.

4. Biopsy test procedure

The process of biopsies goes as follows:
4.1. Preparation The patient is tested for blood, assessed for allergy to some related substances, diagnosed by ultrasound, CT scan,... Before the procedure, the patient needs to abstain from 1 treatment. some medicines, supplements a few days in advance, food and water a few hours in advance. Depending on the part, the biopsy organ, the doctor will have specific instructions.
4.2. Performing the test For a needle or staple biopsy, the patient is under local anesthesia. For endoscopic, excisional, or surgical biopsies, your doctor will administer local or general anesthesia. After anesthesia is administered, the procedure is carried out, which can be quick or long for several hours.
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4.3. Completing the procedure The procedure is complete, the patient still needs to be monitored on the spot. Certain tests or ultrasounds, X-rays, etc. may be ordered to check for bleeding or other abnormalities.
4.4. Cell/tissue analysis The biopsy sample taken will be sent to a pathology laboratory for analysis. Tissue samples are thinly sliced, mounted on a slide, and then stained so that individual cells can be clearly seen under the microscope. The technician looks at the cells, looking for abnormal structures.
The more complex the sample, the longer the analysis process. The results will be discussed by the doctors and the final conclusions.
Thus, there are many types of biopsy tests, suitable for evaluating different types of pathology and tumor locations. Biopsy test results play an important role in disease diagnosis, selection of treatment methods and evaluation of treatment effectiveness.
Vinmec International General Hospital is one of the hospitals that not only ensures professional quality with a team of leading medical doctors, modern equipment and technology, but also stands out for its examination and consultation services. comprehensive and professional medical consultation and treatment; civilized, polite, safe and sterile medical examination and treatment space. Customers when choosing to perform tests here can be completely assured of the accuracy of test results.
Customers can directly go to Vinmec Health system nationwide to visit or contact the hotline here for support.

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