When is polysomnography indicated?

The article was professionally consulted by Doctor Phan Dinh Thuy Tien - General Internal Medicine - Department of Examination & Internal Medicine - Vinmec Nha Trang International General Hospital
Sleep plays a very important role in ensuring human health. Our lives will be greatly affected if we have sleep disorders. Therefore, patients with these disorders need to be diagnosed early and treated promptly, polysomnography is a technique that significantly supports the diagnosis of sleep disorders.

1. What is polysomnography?

Polysomnography is a specialized sleep test that has channels for measuring EEG, eyeball, electromyography, electrocardiogram, nasal and oral airflow, thoracic and abdominal muscle movements. , blood oxygen saturation level, snoring sound, body posture positioning, leg movement measurement, video to monitor developments during the night. Therefore, polysomnography provides complete information about sleep as well as other disorders occurring in sleep such as respiratory disorders, sleep apnea, cardiac arrhythmias, abnormalities often about movement and behavior...
Health organizations around the world warn, there have been many deaths due to complications of sleep apnea. Therefore, to identify sleep disorders, polysomnography is considered the golden method, and this method helps to avoid the dangers caused by sleep apnea.

2. When is polysomnography indicated?

Polysomnography is indicated when patients have sleep disruptions to monitor sleep stages and cycles and find the cause of this condition.
ánh sáng xanh gây khó ngủ
Đo đa ký giấc ngủ khi người bệnh gặp các vấn đề về giấc ngủ
Slow-motion sleep (NREM) is the start of a normal sleep cycle. During this stage, the results of your EEG show that your brain waves often slow down significantly. Slow-motion sleep (NREM) usually lasts only 1 to 2 hours, and then the brain begins to function normally again, initiating rapid eye movement (REM) sleep.
You can experience many different sleep cycles in 1 night, the transition between NREM and REM sleep usually lasts 90 minutes. Your sleep cycle can be affected by a sleep disorder.
If you suspect that you are suffering from the following disorders, your doctor will order you to perform polysomnography, including:
Sleep apnea syndrome or other breathing disorders related to sleep: While sleeping, the patient stops breathing for 10 to 30 seconds. This syndrome can put patients at risk of many dangerous complications such as heart attack, memory loss or angina. Sleep movement disorders: People with sleep movement disorders will involuntarily bend or straighten their limbs while sleeping. Patients with this disorder can develop restless legs syndrome, also known as restless legs syndrome (RLS). Daytime hypersomnia: Characterized by excessive and uncontrollable daytime sleepiness. This is considered a rare brain disorder.
Buồn ngủ
Buồn ngủ quá mức vào ban ngày cũng là loại một rối loạn não
REM sleep disorders: REM sleep plays a very important role in the process of eliminating toxic substances in the brain. Toxins can build up in the brain caused by REM sleep disturbances. Abnormal sleep behaviors: If you have unusual sleep behaviors such as moving or pacing around, your doctor may order a polysomnogram. Insomnia for unknown reasons: Your doctor will order polysomnography in the hope of finding the cause of this condition if the cause of your frequent insomnia is not known. Differential diagnosis: Movement and behavioral disorders during sleep with epilepsy in sleep because these two cases are easily confused with each other. Polysomnography not only helps diagnose sleep disorders, but it is also used to adjust the treatment regimen of patients who have been diagnosed with the disease.

3. Subjects should perform polysomnography

The following subjects should perform polysomnography, including:
People who are obese, sleep during the day, snore during sleep Subjects who drink a lot of alcohol Have long-lasting and recurrent ear, nose, and throat diseases Repeated occurrence People with abnormal structure of the nose and sinuses Patients with diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, heart failure. For the most accurate sleep polysomnogram results, on the day of the measurement, the patient should note some of the following instructions:
Absolutely do not drink alcohol Do not use stimulants such as coffee... To make it easier to fall asleep at night, take a short nap. Eat just enough, don't eat too much
Ăn uống khoa học
Không nên ăn quá no trước khi đo đa ký giấc ngủ

Before measuring, do personal hygiene Patients need to bring test results, prescriptions that have been used within 6 months from the date of measurement. This is the basis for doctors to diagnose and advise patients. Patients need to complete a sleep assessment questionnaire before being sent by medical staff. Unless directed by a doctor, absolutely do not use sleeping pills

4. How is polysomnography done?

To perform polysomnography, your doctor will do it in a dedicated sleep room. In order to help the patient have comfort and comfort, the room is beautifully designed, soundproof, with moderate lighting to create the feeling of a bedroom at home.
Patients must bathe and wash their hair clean, without using stimulants, before conducting polysomnography.
The time to perform polysomnography usually lasts from 9 pm to 6 am the next morning. It takes about 60 minutes for the preparation phase.
The technician will start recording and recording continuously all night after placing electrodes and devices on the patient, starting and testing the machine. All electrical brain activity, parameters of heart rate, respiration, oxygen saturation, snoring, limb movements, body posture... will be recorded during the night. For patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, polysomnography will be recorded while wearing a CPAP machine when CPAP (continuous positive pressure ventilator) is indicated. The next morning, the patient was removed from the electrodes and accessories.
Only highly trained therapists can read polysomnography. The results of performing polysomnography will help confirm the diagnosis and support treatment advice for the patient.

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