Guidelines for caring for children with hemolytic anemia (Thalassaemia) at home

The article is professionally consulted by Master, Doctor Nguyen Minh Tuan - Pediatrician - Department of Pediatrics - Neonatology - Vinmec Danang International General Hospital. Doctor Tuan has over 27 years of experience in the field of Pediatrics and used to be the Deputy Department of General Pediatrics - Da Nang Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital.
And Master, Doctor Truong Thanh Tam - Pediatrician - Department of Pediatrics - Neonatology - Vinmec Danang International General Hospital. Dr. Tam has 15 years of experience working in the field of Pediatrics.
Thalassemia is an inherited hemolytic anemia or congenital hemolytic anemia. The main symptom of the disease is anemia. Thalassemia causes serious complications and becomes a burden on families and society. However, the symptoms of the disease can be completely controlled with a reasonable thalassemia patient care regimen.

1. Thalassemia situation in Vietnam and the world

Hemoglobin diseases are considered the most common group of inherited diseases in the world, including congenital hemolytic disease (also known as thalassemia). According to statistics from the World Health Organization, hemoglobinopathy affects 71% of countries around the world. In which, about 7% of pregnant women carry the gene for hemoglobinopathy and about 1.1% of couples will have the risk of passing the gene to their children. Worldwide, 80-90 million people are carrying the thalassemia gene (accounting for about 1.5% of the global population), of which Southeast Asia accounts for 50%. Every year around the world, about 60,000 - 70,000 children are born with severe thalassemia.
Currently in Vietnam, an estimated 10 million patients are carrying the gene for hemolytic anemia, the rate is usually higher in some provinces, cities and some ethnic groups like Stieng (about 63.9%) , Ede (about 32.2%), Khmer (about 28.2%), Muong (about 21.74%). The number of thalassemia major cases requiring regular treatment is over 20,000 people, each year about 2,000 children are born carrying the disease gene. Therefore, proper care of Thalassemia patients is extremely necessary.

2. Attention when taking care of patients with Thalassemia

Thalassemia patients can fully live, work, get married and even have children when fully and continuously treated, adhere to treatment regimens and have a reasonable diet and lifestyle.

2.1. Thalassemia should eat what?

In the process of taking care of patients with thalassemia, it is necessary to pay attention to the addition of nutritious foods. People with this disease are prone to iron excess, so they should not eat foods high in iron (such as beef, wood ear, watercress). To limit iron absorption from food, patients can drink 1 cup of green tea after meals. Should add foods rich in zinc (including oysters, beets, soybeans...).
Chăm sóc bệnh nhân thalassemia
Sữa đậu nành là loại thực phẩm rất tốt và bổ dưỡng với người bệnh Thalassemia

2.2. Living regimen for patients with thalassemia

Besides the issue of "what to eat with thalassemia", the lifestyle is also quite important:
You can live normally, but limit heavy labor and strenuous activities. Avoid infection: Perform regular hand washing, fully vaccinated against disease. Exercise and exercise with gentle and appropriate sports.

3. How to limit Thalassemia?

Pre-marital counseling: Couples should be examined and tested for Thalassemia before marriage. If both people carry the same form of Thalassemia and want to get married, they should be consulted before deciding to get pregnant. If both husband and wife carry the same form of Thalassemia and are pregnant, they should be diagnosed before giving birth during the 12th - 18th week of pregnancy at specialized medical facilities. The examination and consultation should be performed by specialists in hematology, paediatrics and genetics. Although the incidence is not uncommon, thalassemia is completely preventable and preventable. Therefore, finding out, counseling and screening for disease genes early, before marriage will limit the risk of having babies carrying disease genes, thereby contributing to ensuring population quality for the whole community. copper.
In case when sick, relatives should take care of thalassemia patients properly, the situation will be better.

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