How to gain enough weight during pregnancy?
Below are the national guidelines on nutrition for pregnant women issued by the Ministry of Health to help mothers gain appropriate weight.
1. Important ingredients to gain enough weight during pregnancy
Starch: Starch is the main source of energy for the body. Pregnant women need to know how to properly add starch, consuming too much starch can increase the risk of diabetes. Pregnant women need to eat enough foods containing glucid to supplement energy and participate in the process of cell structure. Eating adequate amounts of glucide also contributes to the promotion of lipid metabolism in both mother and baby.
Protein needs of pregnant women increase to help build and develop the body of the fetus. Mother's diet needs a combination of animal protein and vegetable protein. Foods rich in animal protein include meat, fish, eggs, milk, shrimp, crabs, seafood... Plant-based protein supplements include soybeans, green beans, other legumes, and sesame and peanuts. .
Lipid is especially important during pregnancy and lactation, because it is a lipid that participates in the formation and development of the brain during pregnancy and ensures the quality of breast milk. Lack of lipids in the meal reduces the absorption of nutrients, affects the mother's health and stores fat for milk production after birth, affecting the baby's brain development. On the contrary, consuming too much lipid can lead to overweight, obesity, affect the development of the fetus and can cause metabolic syndrome for the mother.
According to the recommendations of the Ministry of Health, saturated fatty acids should not exceed 10% of dietary energy. Unsaturated fatty acids must provide 11-15% of energy. Therefore, it is necessary to increase the use of vegetable oils and limit the consumption of animal fats.
Fiber has almost no nutritional role, but it has a laxative effect, increases digestion, and is also an agent participating in the elimination of oxidation products, toxic substances in the body and reduce the risk of colon and colon cancers. For pregnant women, fiber helps relieve constipation, ease pregnancy symptoms, and improve appetite. Fiber is abundant in vegetables, fruits, grains,...
Vitamins and minerals: Vitamins and minerals such as calcium, iron, folic acid, vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, ... are important factors for fetal development. Lack of certain essential vitamins and minerals not only affects the nutrition of the fetus, but also causes serious defects. During pregnancy, pregnant women should pay attention to supplementing with necessary vitamins and minerals through meals and taking additional oral supplements as directed by a specialist.
Milk: Pregnant women should drink 2-3 glasses of fresh milk/day after each main meal. It is necessary to choose sugar-free milk to prevent the risk of gestational diabetes.
Water: Pregnant women are very prone to constipation because they need to drink 2.5-3 liters of water every day to avoid the risk of constipation.
2. Diet for pregnant women in each stage
2.2 Nutrition in the second trimester: During this period, the fetus develops very quickly, so the mother's nutritional needs must also increase. According to the recommendations of the Institute of Nutrition - Ministry of Health in 2016, the diet should be more so that the energy supply increases by 250 kcal/day (equivalent to 1 bowl of rice and reasonable food). The fetal skeleton in this period develops rapidly, so the mother needs to increase foods rich in calcium and zinc such as shrimp, crab, eggs, milk, etc. In addition, pregnant women must continue to take supplements. Take iron and folic acid supplements as recommended.
2.3 Nutrition in the last 3 months of pregnancy The last 3 months of pregnancy is the period when the baby's weight is growing fastest, so the mother's nutrition needs to be adequate and varied to meet the needs. of the fetus. According to the recommendations of the Institute of Nutrition, the energy level in the last 3 months of pregnancy needs to increase by 450 kcal/day (equivalent to 2 bowls of rice and reasonable food). In addition to rice, a pregnant mother's meal in the last month should add protein and fat because these are important ingredients to help the baby gain weight.
3. Some other notes to help pregnant women gain weight reasonably
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Reference source: National Institute of Nutrition