How to prevent and reduce symptoms of dizziness

The article is professionally consulted by Master, Doctor Huynh An Thien - Department of Medical Examination & Internal Medicine - Vinmec Danang International General Hospital.
Dizziness is an unpleasant feeling that everyone experiences once in their life. For benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, the symptoms of dizziness occur suddenly with intense intensity, causing confusion and fear in the patient, and reducing the quality of life. For dizziness due to central causes, patients also have accompanying brain damage and long-term sequelae. Therefore, it is very important to know what to do when dizzy and how to prevent dizziness.

1. Prevention of peripheral vertigo

Peripheral vertigo occurs when there are lesions in the vestibular system located in the cochlea. This form of dizziness is very intense, often repeated, sometimes accompanied by nausea, vomiting and especially worse when the patient turns and moves.
Among them, benign paroxysmal vertigo is the most common pathology. However, it is really true as the name implies, if the patient knows how to avoid the triggers, adhere to the use of vestibular stabilizers and perform the tests to reposition the semicircular canal as described above. After this, the symptoms of this vertigo will subside and are completely harmless.
Measures to prevent peripheral vertigo include:
1.1. Avoid changing position too suddenly and too quickly The patient must always remember not to change position suddenly quickly. Specifically, when changing from a lying position to sitting up, standing up or turning the head, bowing and tilting the head must also be done slowly and slowly. It is best to close the eyes to limit the visual reception of spatial change signals, reducing vestibular stimulation. After establishing the pose at the new position, slowly open your eyes.
If you notice that dizziness often occurs when you wake up, then when you sleep, you should use many pillows to prop your head up, should lie on your back, avoid leaning to one side.
In addition, do not sit in a swivel chair or chair with a headrest that leans back too much, limit excessive leaning and bending movements such as picking up things, tying shoelaces.
1.2. Use of drugs Groups of drugs can assist in the management of dizziness in acute attacks as well as relieve symptoms of nausea and vomiting.
Antihistamines should only be used when the patient has severe dizziness that does not improve much after stabilizing the posture. Some sedative drugs can be added if the person is overstimulated, anxious, scared.
However, drugs acting on the central nervous system will have side effects such as drowsiness, lethargy, and dizziness that are difficult to completely go away. Therefore, it should only be used when absolutely necessary and adhere to the dosage as directed by the doctor.
Các nhóm thuốc có thể hỗ trợ điều chỉnh chóng mặt trong các cơn cấp tính
1.3. Exercises for the vestibular system Currently, the treatment of benign paroxysmal vertigo tends not to use drugs, but to apply exercises to reposition the stones in the semicircular canal, helping the vestibular system to recover and adapt. corresponds to the spatial displacement of the body.
Exercises can be done right at the clinic with the support of physiotherapists or the patient can practice at home. If done correctly and patiently, unpleasant symptoms will improve significantly.
1.4. Other treatments When dizziness occurs, it is necessary to stay calm, close your eyes, limit head rotation and find a suitable position to rest. If you feel nauseous, you should suppress it by taking deep breaths and focusing on your breathing. Just follow this, the dizziness will quickly subside in a few minutes.
Do not walk long distances, do heavy work, climb, operate vehicles or machinery when dizzy. Because these things cause more severe and prolonged dizziness, and can even cause accidents for yourself and others.
Keep the space in the room, the aisle clear, avoid messy and indiscriminate items.
Add handles along stairs, in bathtubs and toilets so that sick people can follow them when they suddenly feel dizzy.

2. How to prevent central vertigo

Chóng mặt
Khác với chóng mặt ngoại biên, chóng mặt trung ương là do những tổn thương trong chính não bộ
Unlike peripheral vertigo, central vertigo is caused by damage to the brain itself. Depending on the disease, such as stroke, brain hemorrhage, neoplasm, infection, multiple sclerosis, migraine or epilepsy, the patient will be given a specific treatment plan. In which, the group caused by cerebral blood vessels such as cerebral stroke, transient ischemic attack or cerebral hemorrhage is the most common. Therefore, the treatment and prevention are similar to cardiovascular diseases in general, that is, it is necessary to take long-term drugs, periodically visit and prevent recurrent lesions later. The details of each central vertigo prevention strategy are as follows:
2.1. Good control of blood pressure Good control of blood pressure is good control of blood pressure in the arteries, avoiding too high or low because both lead to dangerous conditions. Sudden rise in blood pressure causes the dissection of atherosclerotic plaques, the filling of blood vessels causing cerebral infarction or the rupture of blood vessels leading to cerebral hemorrhage. Low blood pressure reduces blood flow to the brain, causing dizziness, lightheadedness, easy falls and cognitive disorders.
There is no substitute for regular daily blood pressure medication to control blood pressure if hypertension has been diagnosed . At the same time, knowing how to self-monitor your blood pressure at home is also essential.
2.2. Correction of dyslipidemia and stabilizing blood sugar High blood lipid levels and diabetes are risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Similar to hypertension, these diseases are all chronic diseases, requiring lifelong adherence to treatment and medication.
Besides, the patient himself also needs to have a suitable abstinence attitude, avoiding excessive consumption of foods rich in fat, animal fat, powdered sugar, cakes...
2.3. Exercise your body, practice sports
Cách phòng ngừa và giảm triệu chứng chóng mặt
Thói quen luyện tập thể dục thể thao sẽ giúp giảm lưu lượng máu, giữ huyết áp ở mức ổn định
Having a consistent, regular exercise routine will help keep arteries elastic, even in older people, helping to ensure normal blood flow and blood pressure.
Doctors always recommend that each person spend at least 30 minutes to exercise every day, thereby also keeping a reasonable weight, or losing weight (especially in the abdomen) for overweight and obese people. obesity and increase the flexibility of the muscles.
2.4. Building a positive and healthy lifestyle Patients need to drink enough water every day, a balanced, varied diet rich in vitamins and minerals; get enough sleep, rest in moderation, think optimistically; avoid anger, anxiety, depression; avoid drinking coffee, alcohol, carbonated soft drinks; Quit smoking and stay away from exposure to secondhand smoke.
Dizziness is a very common discomfort. There is a form of dizziness that is only a transient and completely resolved, there is a form of dizziness that is accompanied by other serious conditions, leaving sequelae later. Regardless of the cause, knowing the information about vertigo prevention and consistently applying it will help patients improve their quality of life.

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