Immunization schedule for children 7-18 years old as recommended by CDC (USA)

To know exactly which vaccine and when is the right time to give it to a child between 7 and 18 years old, the doctor will have to rely on the health status, medical history and the vaccines used, so Parents should consult a doctor carefully before vaccinating their children.
The vaccines on the immunization schedule for children 7 to 18 years below are recommended by the Advisory Board of Immunization Practices and approved by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, American Academy of Pediatrics. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, American Academy of Family Physicians, and American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists.

1. Immunization schedule for children from 7 to 18 years old

All children 7 to 18 years old should get a flu shot every year. All children 11 to 12 years of age should get a Tdap shot. All children 11 to 12 years of age should get 2 doses of the HPV vaccine. All children 11 to 12 years of age should get one dose of meningococcal combination vaccine (MenACWY) and a booster shot at age 16. Adolescents 16–18 years of age can be immunized with Meningococcal serogroup B (MenB) vaccine.

2. Vaccines for children from 7 to 18 years old prevent what diseases?

2.1 Diphtheria (Prevented by Tdap Vaccination) Diphtheria is a highly contagious bacterial disease that affects the respiratory system, including the lungs. Diphtheria bacteria can be spread from person to person through direct contact with droplets from an infected person when they cough or sneeze. When infected, the bacteria can produce toxins in the body that create a thick coating at the back of your nose or throat that makes it difficult to breathe or swallow. The effects of this toxin can also lead to toxic myocarditis, often with tachycardia, and especially possibly conduction disturbances leading to cardiac arrest and death. In severe cases, diphtheria can cause coma, paralysis or even death.
2.2 Hepatitis A (Prevented with HepA Vaccine) Hepatitis A is an infection of the liver caused by the hepatitis A virus. The virus is spread mainly from person to person through the fecal-oral route. In other words, the virus is taken by mouth through contact with objects, foods, or drinks that are contaminated with the feces of an infected person. Symptoms can include fever, fatigue, loss of appetite, vomiting, stomach pain, and sometimes yellowing of the skin and eyes. Sometimes an infected person may have no symptoms, due to a mild illness for a week or two, or a severe illness that can last several months, rarely leading to liver failure and death.
Mệt mỏi
Các triệu chứng của viêm gan A có thể bao gồm sốt, mệt mỏi, kém ăn, nôn ói, đau dạ dày và đôi khi vàng da, vàng mắt
2.3 Hepatitis B (Prevented with HepB Vaccine) Hepatitis B causes symptoms similar to flu with loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting rash, joint pain, and jaundice. Symptoms of acute hepatitis B include fever, fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, joint and stomach pain, dark urine, gray stools, and jaundice.
2.4 Human Papillomavirus (Prevented with HPV Vaccine) The human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common virus and a common sexually transmitted infection (STI) especially in humans, especially adolescents and people under the age of 20. You can get HPV from having oral, vaginal, or anal sex with someone who has the virus. It is usually spread during vaginal or anal sex. HPV can be spread even if an infected person has no signs or symptoms. About 14 million people, including adolescents, are infected with HPV each year. HPV infections can cause cancer of the cervix, vagina, and vulva in women and cancer of the penis in men. HPV can also cause anal cancer, oropharyngeal cancer, and genital warts in both men and women.
2.5 Influenza (Prevent by getting a yearly flu shot) Influenza is a highly contagious viral infection of the nose, throat, and lungs. The virus is easily spread through droplets when an infected person coughs or sneezes, and the illness progresses from mild to severe. Typical symptoms include sudden high fever, chills, dry cough, headache, runny nose, sore throat, and muscle and joint pain. Extreme fatigue can last from a few days to several weeks. The flu can lead to hospitalization or even death, even in previously healthy children.
2.6 Measles (MMR Vaccine) Measles is one of the most contagious infectious diseases. The measles virus is spread through direct contact with the breathing air of an infected person. Measles is so contagious that simply being in the same room as someone who has measles, even if that person has left, the air in the room can infect the rest of the people. Symptoms often include rash, fever, cough, and red, watery eyes. The fever can be persistent, the rash can last up to a week, and the cough can last about 10 days. Complications from measles can cause pneumonia, seizures, brain damage, or death.
2.7 Meningococcal Disease (Prevented by Meningococcal Vaccine) Meningococcal disease leads to two consequences: (1) meningitis (infection of the brain and spinal cord) and ( 2) blood infection. The bacteria that cause meningococcal disease are transmitted from person to person through respiratory droplets or from the throat released into the air. Close and prolonged contact such as kissing, sneezing, or coughing on someone, or living near an infected person, sharing food, drink, or household objects with an infected person is susceptible to the spread of the disease. Symptoms include sudden onset of fever, headache, and stiff neck. With sepsis, symptoms include a dark purple rash. The mortality rate is about 1 in 10 and successful treatment can result in loss of an arm or leg, deafness, problems with the nervous system, seizures or strokes.
Bệnh viêm màng não mô cầu được phòng ngừa bằng cách tiêm vắc-xin não mô cầu
2.8 Mumps (Prevented by vaccination with MMR) Mumps is an infectious disease caused by the mumps virus, which is spread through the air by coughing or sneezing from an infected person. In addition, children can also become infected with mumps by coming into contact with contaminated objects such as toys at daycare. The mumps virus causes swelling of the salivary glands under the ears or jaw, fever, muscle aches, fatigue, abdominal pain, and loss of appetite. Serious complications for babies with mumps include meningitis (infection of the brain and spinal cord), encephalitis, permanent hearing loss, or swelling of the testicles, which rarely lead to decreased fertility later in life.
2.9 Whooping cough (Prevented by Tdap vaccination) Whooping cough is spread very easily by coughing and sneezing. This cough can last for weeks, causing students and faculty to miss school and stop participating in other activities. Whooping cough can be fatal to very young children before it's time to get vaccinated. Usually babies get whooping cough from their siblings or other family members. Children with pertussis can develop pneumonia, seizures, brain damage, or even death.
2.10 Pneumococcal disease (Prevented by pneumococcal vaccine) Pneumonia is a lung infection that can be caused by bacteria called pneumococcus. These bacteria also cause other types of infections, such as ear infections, sinus infections, meningitis (infection of the brain and spinal cord), and bloodstream infections. Sinus and ear infections are usually mild and much more common than other serious illnesses caused by pneumococcus. However, in some cases, pneumococcal disease can be fatal or lead to long-term complications such as brain damage and hearing loss. The bacteria that cause pneumococcal disease are spread when an infected person coughs or sneezes. Many people who have bacteria in their nose or throat but don't get sick are called carriers, and it's these people who can spread the disease to others.
2.11 Polio (Prevented by IPV Vaccination) Polio is an acute gastrointestinal viral infection caused by the Polio virus (Poliovirus), which can be contagious. The disease is spread through contact with the feces of an infected person and through droplets when an infected person sneezes or coughs. Symptoms often include sore throat, fever, fatigue, nausea, headache, or stomach pain. In about 1% of cases, polio can cause acute flaccid paralysis. Among those paralyzed, about 2 to 10 children out of every 100 die from the virus affecting the respiratory muscles.
2.12 Rubella (Prevent by getting the MMR vaccine)
Tiêm vắc xin MMR để phòng ngừa Rubella
Rubella is caused by a virus that is spread when an infected person coughs and sneezes. In children, rubella usually causes a mild illness with fever, swollen glands, and a rash that lasts about 3 days. Rubella rarely causes serious complications in children, but can be very serious for a fetus in the womb. If a pregnant woman is infected, Rubella can cause miscarriage, serious heart defects, mental retardation, hearing loss, and vision loss.
2.13 Tetanus (Prevented by Tdap Vaccination) Tetanus mainly affects the neck and abdomen. When people are infected, the bacteria produce toxins that cause muscles to become tight, very painful. This can lead to a locked jaw that prevents the person from opening their mouth, swallowing, or breathing. The bacteria that cause tetanus are found in soil, dust, and feces. The bacteria enter the body through a puncture, cut, or scratch in the skin. Full recovery from tetanus can take several months with a mortality rate of 1 to 2 people in 10 people with tetanus.
2.14 Chickenpox (Prevent by getting the chickenpox vaccine) Chickenpox is caused by the varicella zoster virus. Chickenpox is very contagious when an infected person coughs or sneezes, or spreads from blisters on the skin when healthy people touch them or breathe in the virus. Typical symptoms of chickenpox include an itchy rash with blisters, fatigue, headache, and fever. Chickenpox is usually mild, but it can lead to serious skin infections, pneumonia, encephalitis, or even death.
Vinmec International General Hospital uses a source of high quality vaccines, of clear origin, suitable for the age to be vaccinated, ensuring safety from registration, storage to use. Before vaccination, all customers are screened before vaccination with specialist doctors to ensure the best health when vaccinated. 100% of vaccinated customers are monitored and re-evaluated before leaving. In particular, the post-vaccination monitoring room is fully equipped with emergency facilities; the team of doctors - nurses are trained in anaphylaxis emergency management to ensure timely and correct treatment when an incident occurs.

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Bài viết này được viết cho người đọc tại Sài Gòn, Hà Nội, Hồ Chí Minh, Phú Quốc, Nha Trang, Hạ Long, Hải Phòng, Đà Nẵng.

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