Neurological disorders: A public health challenge

This article is expertly consulted by Master, Doctor Bui Ngoc Phuong Hoa - General Internal Medicine - Department of Medical Examination & Internal Medicine - Vinmec Danang International General Hospital.
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), hundreds of millions of people worldwide are affected by neurological disorders. More than 6 million people die from stroke each year, of which more than 80% occur in low- and middle-income countries. More than 50 million people have epilepsy worldwide and there are 47.5 million people with dementia globally with 7.7 million new cases each year. In addition, Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia with a prevalence of 60% to 70%.

1. Definition

According to Wikipedia, a neurological disorder is any disorder of the nervous system. Structural, biochemical, or electrical abnormalities in the brain, spinal cord, or nerves can lead to a variety of central or peripheral nervous system symptoms, or both. For example, paralysis, muscle weakness, coordination in case of decreased or lost sensation, pain, convulsions, confusion,...depending on the degree of consciousness change. There may be delusions or hallucinations. Ask neurologists or Psychiatrists to detect and distinguish the cause.
Triệu chứng thần kinh có thể xảy ra do nhiễm trùng hoặc do phản ứng miễn dịch

2. Causes of neurological disorders

Causes of these neurological disorders:
Nerve infection : caused by many bacteria (such as Mycobacterial tuberculosis, Neisseria meningitides), ... Cerebrovascular diseases including cerebral aneurysms, cerebral vascular malformations, cause out a stroke. Shock: brain tumor, ... causing motor paralysis, cranial nerve paralysis, .. Degenerative: multiple sclerosis (MS), Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and other dementias, . .. Head trauma causes brain hematoma,... Nervous disorders due to malnutrition,... Psychiatric diseases: schizophrenia, emotional disorders, dissociative disorders,...

3. Risk factors for neurological disorders

Because the cause of neurological disorders is due to many diseases, the risk factors also vary by disease.
Example: According to the World Health Organization, the main risk factor for most forms of dementia is old age, with incidence doubling every year in people over the age of 65. This early onset is highly unusual and if present it is Alzheimer's disease, which is caused by a single gene mutation at one of the three loci (beta amyloid precursor protein, presenilin1 and presenilin2) that account for large number of cases of Alzheimer's.
Smoking increases the risk of Alzheimer's disease as well as vascular dementia. In addition, long-term follow-up studies show that high blood pressure and high cholesterol levels in middle age increase the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease as you age.
When blood lipids are increased, the risk of atherosclerosis, high blood pressure, and this is the risk of stroke.

4. Consequences of neurological disorders

Depending on the degree of neurological disorder, death, neurological sequelae, reduced quality of life, ...
Dementia is one of the main causes of disability in life. after that. According to estimates in the 2003 Global Burden of Disease report, dementia causes 11.2% of total years of disability life in people aged 60 years and over: more than stroke (9.5% ), musculoskeletal disorders (8.9%), cardiovascular diseases (5.0%) and all forms of cancer (2.4%).
The economic costs of dementia are enormous including costs of care (health care, social and community care, respite care and long-term residency in medical facilities. health care or nursing home care) and informal care (unpaid care of family members, including lost opportunities to earn money or find work while caring for the sick).
In the UK, direct care costs alone account for almost $8 billion or $13,000 per patient. In the United States, the cost is estimated at $100 billion per year, with patients with severe dementia costing about $36,794 per patient (this is the 1998 price).
In developed countries, costs tend to increase as dementia progresses. When people with dementia receive care at home, informal care costs can exceed direct formal care costs. As the disease progresses and requires medical attention, the cost of formal care will increase.
Brain stroke, damaging brain cells, depending on the damaged brain area, can cause motor paralysis, difficulty speaking, disturbances in perception, thinking, emotions,... Not to mention economic losses , loss of quality of life,..

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