How to maintain healthy eating habits throughout life
1. Food and stages in your life
A variety of nutritious foods Drink enough water every day Full of energy with carbohydrates as the preferred source Supplement with essential fatty acids from foods like oily fish, nuts, avocados Get enough protein to maintain and repair cells Fat-soluble and water-soluble vitamins Essential minerals like iron, calcium and zinc Foods with Contains phytochemicals of plant origin, which may protect against heart disease, diabetes, certain cancers, arthritis and osteoporosis. A varied diet that focuses on fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, dairy foods, and lean meats can meet these basic requirements.
2. Maintain healthy eating habits throughout your life
Properly prepared breast milk or formula provides enough water for a healthy baby to replace any dehydration. However, all babies need to drink water after solid foods are introduced.
2.2. Infant food - six to 12 months of age Solids should be introduced around six months of age to meet your baby's growing nutritional and developmental needs. However, breastfeeding should continue until the baby is 12 months of age or older, or for as long as both mother and baby want.
Different cultures have their own traditions about which foods are more appropriate to start with. Culture-appropriate foods and preparation methods should be encouraged when they are nutritionally adequate. As a baby is gradually weaned or bottle-fed and new solids are introduced, there may be a decrease in iron stores. To maintain the body's stores of nutrients, it is necessary to:
Give your child foods rich in iron and zinc, such as iron-rich cereals, pureed meat and poultry dishes, cooked tofu and other foods. legumes such as soybeans and lentils. Iron-rich rice cereals are often recommended as first foods, as they have the added benefit of reducing the risk of allergic reactions. Foods can be introduced in any order, as long as the texture is appropriate for your baby's stage of development. Foods range from fruits and vegetables (in terms of vitamin and mineral content) to meat, poultry, fish and even eggs.. Do not add salt, sugar or honey to your baby's food. Avoid drinking cow's milk for the first 12 months. Small amounts can be used in cereals and custards. All milk used must be pasteurized. Whole fruit is preferred over juice. Avoid fruit juices and sugary drinks. Put your baby to bed without a bottle, or put the bottle away when the baby is finished feeding to minimize long-term exposure of teeth to sugary liquids. Avoid whole grains, seeds, or similar hard foods to reduce the risk of choking. Introduce each type of food one by one. Introduce new foods every three to four days to avoid confusion and rule out allergies and food sensitivities. Breastfeed during illness and breastfeed after illness. Give plenty of fluids if your baby has diarrhea. The Cancer Council recommends that infants under 12 months not be exposed to direct sunlight during daily sun protection periods (when UV Index is 3 or higher).
During childhood, children tend to change food intake (naturally) to match their growth patterns. Children's food needs vary widely, depending on their growth and physical activity levels. Like energy needs, a child's need for protein, vitamins, and minerals increases with age. Ideally, children should accumulate nutrient reserves to prepare for the growth spurts during adolescence. Appropriate weight gain and growth will dictate whether food intake is appropriate. Food-related problems for young children include overweight, obesity, tooth decay and food sensitivities. Food recommendations for children during this period include:
If the child's weight gain is not suitable for growth, limit high-energy, nutrient-poor solids. Increase your baby's physical activity. You can also limit the amount of time you watch TV or other electronic devices. Tooth decay can be prevented with regular brushing and visits to the dentist. Avoid sugary foods and drinks, especially sticky or acidic ones. Make sure your child drinks enough water. Fruit juices should be limited and soft drinks should be avoided. Reduced-fat milk is not recommended for children under two years of age, due to the increased energy requirements and high growth rate at this age. Be aware of foods that can cause an allergic reaction, including peanuts, shellfish, and cow's milk. Be especially careful if your family has a history of food allergies. 2.4. Adolescent Food The growth spurts during adolescence leave them in need of more energy and nutrients. For girls, this usually happens around 10 to 11 years of age. For boys, it happens later, at about 12 to 13 years. Food recommendations for babies during this period include:
The extra energy needed for growth and physical activity should be obtained from foods that also provide nutrients, rather than just 'empty calories'. Junk and fast food needs to be balanced with nutrient-rich foods such as wholegrain breads and cereals, fruits, legumes, nuts, vegetables, fish and lean meats. Milk, yogurt, and cheese (mostly reduced-fat) are recommended to increase calcium intake - this is especially important for bone growth. The best cheese should be low-salt. Adolescent girls should be especially encouraged to consume milk and dairy products. 2.5. Older Adolescents and Young Adults Moving away from home, starting work or school, accompanied by lifestyle changes in late puberty and early 20s adolescents can cause regime changes Eating is not always healthy. Advice for children at this stage includes:
Try to stay physically active on purpose. Limit alcohol intake. Reduce the amount of fat and salt in your daily diet. Be careful with foods rich in iron and calcium. Establish healthy eating habits that will be implemented in later life.
Don't 'go on a diet', as this can have a negative impact on the baby. Don't 'eat for two', as this will lead to unnecessary weight gain. A healthy pregnancy only needs to add 1,400 to 1,900 Kcal per day during the second and third trimesters, which is equivalent to a glass of milk or a sandwich. Focus on diet quality rather than quantity. Suppress cravings, but don't let them replace more nutrient-dense foods. Nutrients that increase the need during pregnancy include folate (vitamin B9), iron, vitamin B12 and iodine. Iron is necessary for the transport of oxygen in the body. Iron supplements may be recommended by your doctor during pregnancy, but should not be taken unless recommended by your doctor. Increasing vitamin C intake can help increase iron absorption from food. Folate is important during the first trimester and during the first trimester of pregnancy to avoid neural tube defects (such as spina bifida) in the baby. All women of childbearing age should eat foods high in folate (such as green leafy vegetables, fruits, and legumes). If planning a pregnancy, it's important to get 400 μg of folate/day, and if you're pregnant, this increases to 600 μg/day. This can be obtained from folate supplements and a diet rich in folate-rich foods (be sure to talk to your doctor first). Currently, all bread flours are required to be fortified with folic acid (a form of folate added to foods). This will help women reach the recommended folate intake. Iodine is important for your baby's normal growth and development. Iodine supplements are often recommended during pregnancy to meet increased needs, as food sources (such as seafood, iodized salt and bread) are unlikely to provide enough iodine. . The recommended calcium intake is not particularly increased during pregnancy. However, it is very important that pregnant women meet their calcium needs during pregnancy. No one knows the safe limit of drinking while pregnant. It is recommended not to drink at all. Pregnant women should avoid foods that have been linked to an increased risk of listeria bacteria (such as soft cheeses and cold seafood) and be careful with foods that are more likely to contain mercury (such as like some fish). Listeria bacteria can seriously affect fetal development Physical activity has many benefits. If you are active, healthy and have a normal pregnancy, you can continue to be physically active throughout your pregnancy. Drink a lot of water. Don't smoke - both direct and passive smoking are associated with growth retardation, increased risk of spontaneous abortion, stillbirth, placental complications and low birth weight.
Eat well - breastfeeding will burn extra calories. Eat foods rich in nutrients — especially those rich in folate, iodine, zinc, and calcium. Eat and drink often – breastfeeding can increase your risk of dehydration and cause constipation. Fluid requirement is approximate minimum 750 - 1000ml a day on basal need. Women should continue to avoid alcohol while breastfeeding. 2.8. Food for Menopausal Women Osteoporosis is common in postmenopausal women due to hormone-related changes.
Eat calcium-rich foods - such as milk or, if necessary, take calcium supplements as prescribed by your doctor. Weight-bearing exercises - such as walking or weight training - can strengthen bones and help maintain a healthy body weight. A diet high in fiber, low in fat and low in salt – a diet high in phytoestrogens has been found to reduce many symptoms of menopause such as hot flashes. Good food sources include soy products (tofu, soy milk), chickpeas, flaxseeds, lentils, cracked wheat, and barley. Many whole grains, nutrient-dense foods - whole grains, legumes and soy foods (such as tofu, soybeans and flaxseeds), fruits and vegetables, and low-fat dairy products. 2.9. Food for the elderly Many people eat less as they age - this can make it difficult for them to ensure that their diet has enough variety to include all the nutrients they need. . Nutrition advice for the elderly:
Please regularly follow Vinmec website (www.vinmec.com) to update useful health care information and leave information when you need medical advice and support!
Để được tư vấn trực tiếp, Quý khách vui lòng bấm số HOTLINE hoặc đặt lịch trực tiếp TẠI ĐÂY. Tải ứng dụng MyVinmec để đặt lịch nhanh hơn, theo dõi lịch tiện lợi hơn và đặt tư vấn từ xa qua video với bác sĩ Vinmec mọi lúc mọi nơi.