Nutrition for patients after gastrointestinal surgery

Gastrointestinal diseases are now very common and occur in all ages, depending on the severity, the treatment methods are also different. Some cases require surgical intervention. For patients with gastrointestinal surgery, they need to have a separate and appropriate diet.

1. General gastrointestinal tract

The digestive tract is a system of many organs in the body, which plays a very important role. This is the place to provide the food and water needed for the body and absorb nutrients, so that the new body can grow.
Digestive system includes many organs, including: mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, colon, rectum, and appendix. Thanks to the action of the above organs, the food taken into the body is processed, absorbed and eliminated wastes out.
Digestive tract diseases are a common group of diseases. The reason is that the digestive system has to come into direct contact with food and drinking water that may contain pathogenic microorganisms or toxic chemicals. Depending on the severity of the disease, there are different methods of treatment. Mild disease, just need to take medicine, diet. Severe disease can carry out surgical procedures such as surgery, endoscopy...
Hệ tiêu hóa của con người gồm rất nhiều cơ quan
Hệ tiêu hóa của con người gồm rất nhiều cơ quan

2. Diet for patients after gastrointestinal surgery

Patients after surgery in general and gastrointestinal surgery in particular need to be carefully cared for. These patients are on very strict diets. Maintaining a reasonable diet will help wounds heal faster and improve the patient's resistance. In addition, proper nutrition for patients undergoing gastrointestinal surgery also helps to avoid infections.
Depending on the type of surgery, the patient's nutrition will be different:
Patients without surgical intervention on the digestive system: laparoscopic surgery, biopsy, orthopedic surgery, ...
For these patients, the incision is small, there is less bleeding and less pain. On the first day after surgery, nutrition through infusion is the main thing. One day after surgery, give the patient soft and liquid foods such as milk and porridge. After the patient returns to defecation, eat normally, gradually increase the quantity and consistency of food, eat easily digestible and easily absorbed substances. Patients with intervention on the digestive system: gastric bypass surgery, intestinal resection, stitches of perforations, etc. In these patients, the incision is large, blood loss is more and causes more pain. In addition, the use of anesthetics and anesthetics also affects intestinal motility. Therefore, right after surgery, it is necessary to provide nutrition to the patient through the vein. After gastrointestinal surgery patients can smell, soft foods can be given. The food can be eaten such as porridge, milk. Then gradually increase the quantity, quality and solidity of the feed. Along with that is the gradual reduction of infusion for the patient.

3. Diet according to each stage after gastrointestinal surgery

First stage: 1-2 days after gastrointestinal surgery In this stage, the body temperature rises, under the influence of anesthetic drugs still work, leading to intestinal paralysis, loss of intestinal motility. In addition, the patient is also gassy and fatigued. This phenomenon is further increased by the body's loss of potassium and nitrogen due to increased excretion.
Therefore, for patients undergoing gastrointestinal surgery, this stage is mainly for rehydration, electrolytes, glucose and necessary energy. Sugar and electrolytes can be infused and the patient is given fluids such as glucose 5%, glucose 30%, NaCl 0.9%, KCl 1 or 2 ampoules. If the patient has abdominal distension, the amount of water should be limited, can stop drinking water if severe. In addition, additional plasma and blood can also be given to patients depending on their condition.
Bệnh nhân phẫu thuật đường tiêu hóa giai đoạn đầu chỉ nên truyền dinh dưỡng qua đường tĩnh mạch
Bệnh nhân phẫu thuật đường tiêu hóa giai đoạn đầu chỉ nên truyền dinh dưỡng qua đường tĩnh mạch
Later stage: From the 3rd to 5th day after surgery In this stage, bowel movements have reappeared and the patient is able to pass bowel movements. Because the anesthetic has worn off, the patient is more awake, feeling hungry but still anorexia. Nitrogen balance returned to normal due to decreased excretion. At the same time, potassium excretion is also reduced.
At this stage, it is necessary to gradually increase the amount of food for the patient but still eat liquids, gradually reduce the intravenous infusion. Provide foods rich in energy and protein and vitamins, and limit fiber.
Patients with gastrointestinal surgery at this stage can eat 4 to 6 meals. When the patient cannot use milk, juice can be used instead. Each meal only allows the patient to eat a little at a time, do not eat too much.
Recovery phase In this stage, patients with gastrointestinal surgery can have normal bowel movements and urination. The incision was healed, blood potassium gradually returned to normal. The patient's condition is much better. The patient has returned to feeling hungry again, so it is possible to increase the amount of food and increase the solidity of the food to help the patient recover better. In particular, it is necessary to add more protein and calories to the patient's diet.
Supplement protein for patients through meat, fish, eggs, milk, beans. In addition, the patient should eat a lot of fruit, especially those containing a lot of vitamin C and vitamin B.
Can feed the patient 5 to 6 meals a day. Provide adequate nutrition to the patient. Give the patient a lot of green vegetables and fruits to avoid constipation. In addition, green vegetables also help heal wounds quickly, increase resistance and reduce the risk of infection.
Need to give the patient food early instead of parenteral nutrition. This both helps the digestive system recover early and also saves costs. If the enteral food supplement does not meet the needs of the patient. The catheter can then be used.
Attention: For patients with gastrointestinal surgery need to feed many meals. Do not let the patient eat much at each meal.
Thus, with gastrointestinal surgery patients need to have a reasonable diet. It is necessary to provide adequate nutrition for the patient to be healthy quickly and the incision to heal quickly. In addition, it is necessary to fully follow the instructions of the doctor so that the patient recovers faster.
Vinmec International General Hospital is a high-quality medical care address with a team of qualified doctors and a system of modern equipment. Currently, the hospital has a program of Early Rehabilitation Care after Surgery (ERAS) to help provide comprehensive care to patients in the pre-, intra- and post-operative period in order to reduce hospital stay, improve the quality of treatment. treatment and reduce costs, reduce the rate of complications for patients. Applying ERAS helps to reduce the time of care by 30% and complications after surgery by 50%.
If you want to consult about ERAS, you can make an appointment with a doctor or expert to get the most specific advice.

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