Polycystic ovary is the "culprit" of infertility?

The article was professionally consulted with Specialist Doctor II Tran Thi Mai Huong - Obstetrician and Gynecologist - Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology - Vinmec Hai Phong International General Hospital.
One of the most common reasons why women have trouble getting pregnant is polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This is a hormone problem that affects the reproductive system. With PCOS, your ovaries are larger than normal and may contain many small follicles and immature eggs.

1. Differences in hormones

Polycystic ovaries (PCOS) cause a woman's body to make higher-than-normal amounts of androgens. These are hormones that are often considered male hormones, because men have much higher levels of androgens than women.
Androgen is very important in the development of male sex organs and other male characteristics, such as beard hair, deep voice,... In women, androgens are usually converted into the hormone estrogen.
PCOS can cause women to miss their periods or have irregular periods. This can be one of the first signs that you may have a health problem, such as polycystic ovaries. In addition, the hormone imbalance caused by the disease also leads to many consequences, including metabolic disorders, increased risk of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes. Specifically, 50% of patients will have diabetes before the age of 40, the risk of heart attack is higher than that of the same age, high blood pressure, cholesterol, blood fat and sleep apnea.

2. Ovulation problem

Nang noãn
Hội chứng buồng trứng đa nang khiến nang noãn phát triển bất thường
The basic conditions for successful conception are:
Follicle development and ovulation Having quality sperm Sperm reaching an ovum Fertilization, implantation and development in the uterus at least 37 weeks . Disruption in any part of the above chain of reproductive activities leads to conception failure.
Polycystic ovary syndrome causes abnormal follicles to develop and decrease or not ovulate. High levels of androgens interfere with egg development and regular ovulation. Specifically, androgens make the lining of the ovary thicker, making it harder for an egg to escape to release an ovum. In addition, androgens also affect the endocrine regulation mechanism, causing an imbalance of hormones, causing the follicles to be empty or not mature. If a healthy egg is not released, it cannot be fertilized by sperm, meaning conception does not occur and you cannot get pregnant.
According to statistics, female infertility accounts for 40% of infertility cases. Polycystic ovary syndrome accounts for up to 75% of infertility due to anovulation. The high morbidity and mortality associated with PCOS make PCOS a cause for concern.

3. Cycle adjustment

Ngừng uống thuốc tránh thai hàng ngày
Thuốc tránh thai có chứa các hormone estrogen và progestin nhân tạo giúp điều chỉnh chu kỳ
Currently, there is no specific treatment for polycystic ovary syndrome. Treatment is often aimed at controlling hyperandrogenism or treating infertility by:
Your doctor may prescribe birth control pills that contain the artificial hormones estrogen and progestin. These pills help regulate your cycle and regulate your periods by reducing androgen production. If you can't tolerate the combined oral contraceptive pill, your doctor may recommend a progestin-only pill.

4. Pills to help with ovulation

You will not be able to get pregnant while you are taking the Pill to regulate your cycle due to polycystic ovaries. But if you need to ovulate to get pregnant, certain medications can help:
Clomiphene is an anti-estrogen that is taken early in your cycle to stimulate follicle growth If clomiphene and metformin If that doesn't work, your doctor may prescribe medication that contains follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and ovulation-stimulating hormone (LH) through an injection. Another medication that helps with ovulation is letrozole. This medication is sometimes used if the available options are not effective.
In addition to using ovarian stimulation, surgical intervention is also a way to treat infertility for women with polycystic ovary syndrome. In particular, inducing mono-ovulation to avoid the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation and multiple pregnancy.
If you have PCOS and want to get pregnant, you should talk to your fertility specialist to make sure you get the right dose of medication that will help solve all your problems. Alternatively, regular checkups and ultrasounds can be scheduled to see your condition. Because patients with PCOS have sensitive ovaries, treatment must be done with extreme caution.

5. Lifestyle changes

Thuốc tránh thai có thể khiến cơ thể tăng cân tích nước
Nếu bạn tăng cân nhiều có thể ảnh hưởng đến nội tiết tố
For some women, gaining a lot of weight can affect hormones. In turn, weight loss in someone who is obese or overweight can help bring hormones back to normal levels. Losing 10% of your body weight can make it easier to predict your period, thereby increasing your chances of getting pregnant.
Overall, living a healthier lifestyle with a healthy diet, regular exercise, no smoking, less stress, good control of diabetes and other medical conditions will improve rates fertility, increasing your chances of getting pregnant naturally.
Remember, if your period doesn't happen on time or you've been diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), work closely with your doctor to help control your cycle. And if you want to get pregnant, working closely with a fertility specialist is even more important.
In fact, many studies have shown that not all cases of polycystic ovary syndrome also cause infertility, there are still cases of pregnancy if treated promptly. However, if the condition is long-term, the risk of infertility and infertility is higher. Therefore, women should check their gynecological health periodically at trusted specialized medical facilities to detect the disease early and have appropriate treatment solutions.
Vinmec International General Hospital nationwide is a prestigious gynecological treatment address with modern equipment and a team of highly skilled and professional doctors. Currently, Vinmec has a Package of Basic Gynecological Examination and Screening, which helps to detect the disease even when there are no symptoms and treat polycystic ovary syndrome according to the regimen that is most suitable for the condition, in order to bring the best results. best outcome for the patient's health.

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Reference source: .webmd.com

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