Pre-pregnancy screening and testing

The article was professionally consulted by Doctor Hoang Thi Anh Tuyet - Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology - Vinmec Central Park International General Hospital.
In order for the pregnancy and childbirth process to be favorable, and to minimize possible risks, screening and testing before pregnancy is extremely important. When performing pre-pregnancy screening, couples need to follow the doctor's instructions exactly to get accurate results, creating conditions for a successful pregnancy.

1. Purpose of pre-pregnancy screening and testing

According to statistics, Vietnam is a country with very high maternal and newborn mortality rates. An estimated 41,000 children are born with birth defects each year, negatively affecting the family's happiness and economy as well as the development of society. Therefore, the counseling and health check for pregnancy preparation for couples who are planning to become pregnant or for those who have been pregnant/have given birth to a child with birth defects,... It is very important to minimize the possible risks in an upcoming pregnancy.
Pre-pregnancy screening are tests that should be done to check the genetic health of both the father and the mother before becoming pregnant. The purpose of this is to:
Early identify abnormalities in the health of the father and mother that can be passed on to their children, affecting the conception and development of the fetus in the womb as well as children after birth; Creating a premise for doctors to give advice on when to give birth, conception methods, safe labor, and healthy babies. Thereby, preventing the risk of giving birth to a child with birth defects, unexplained stillbirth; Consult your doctor about nutrition and medicine to use to prepare the best body condition before pregnancy and have a perfect pregnancy.
Khám vô sinh, hiếm muộn
Khám sàng lọc trước khi mang thai là việc làm cần thiết

2. Pre-pregnancy screening methods

2.1 Screening for people preparing for fatherhood
General - clinical examination: The doctor asks to know about the health history of himself and his family. Then, perform pulse measurement, blood pressure, auscultation, check body mass index (BMI) and general genital examination; Cardiopulmonary X-ray ; Inguinal scrotal ultrasound; Do basic tests: Hematology tests, basic coagulation tests, blood biochemistry tests and urinalysis; Endocrine tests; Semen test ; Testing for sexually transmitted diseases; Screen for some chromosomal abnormalities.
Xét nghiệm kháng thể kháng tinh trùng
Mẫu tinh trùng được làm xét nghiệm tinh dịch đồ
2.2 Screening for mothers-to-be
General - clinical examination: The doctor asks to know the health history of himself and his family. Then, perform pulse measurement, blood pressure, auscultation, check body mass index (BMI) and general genital examination; Breast examination and ultrasound ; Gynecological examination: Examining and detecting risk factors that can affect the health of pregnant women and fetuses during pregnancy such as cervical polyps, genital infections, uterine fibroids, etc. ..; Chest X-ray; Abdominal ultrasound: Evaluation of morphology and abnormal detection of intra-abdominal organs such as liver, spleen, pancreas, kidney, uterus, ovaries,...; Dental examination: Assess the risk of oral diseases because oral disease during pregnancy can lead to the risk of premature birth; Electrocardiogram: Detect potential diseases that can affect the health of pregnant women and fetuses during pregnancy such as arrhythmias, myocardial infarction,...; Do basic tests: Hematology tests, basic coagulation tests, blood biochemistry tests and urinalysis. Blood count test to check blood group, check for anemia, abnormal blood cells,... or not. Blood chemistry test to determine if you have diabetes or have problems with liver or kidney function. Urinalysis to detect urinary tract infections or other problems,...; Endocrine tests help detect thyroid abnormalities early (the thyroid plays an important role in the development of the fetal central nervous system); Testing for sexually transmitted diseases; Testing for infectious diseases that can affect pregnancy; Virus screening test: HIV, Rubella, syphilis, hepatitis B,...; Screening for certain chromosomal inheritance.
Lấy máu xét nghiệm
Xét nghiệm sàng lọc trước khi mang thai
Note: Genetic screening for chromosomes is essential for couples who have:
Infertility, miscarriage, stillbirth in family members; Relatives with birth defects or mental problems such as mental retardation, schizophrenia,...; Have blood sugar problems, high blood pressure; Having relatives with cleft palate, bent legs, impaired vision and hearing; Relatives have psychological problems such as autism, depression; Having relatives with or carrying genetic diseases such as hemophilia, congenital hemolysis, neurofibromatosis type 1,...; Women planning to become pregnant when they are older.
Trầm cảm
Người thân mắc bệnh tự kỷ, trầm cảm

3. What to prepare when going for pre-pregnancy screening

From the moment they intend to have a baby, couples should go for screening as soon as possible. In order to have accurate health examination results, convenient for the mother to vaccinate and take the initiative in pregnancy, it is recommended to perform a screening test about 3 - 6 months before pregnancy.
Some work to prepare includes:
Health examination papers: Vaccination papers, the nearest health examination paper for doctors to diagnose faster and more accurately; Pregnancy history: For women who have had previous fertility; Remember the medical history of yourself and your family to answer the doctor's questions such as: What vaccines have been given, have any diseases, have had surgery, are allergic to any ingredients, lifestyle such as: how, menstrual cycle, any genetic disease,...; Prepare questions in advance to consult the doctor when going to the doctor, taking tests before pregnancy; Learn carefully about the tests to do to prepare well such as: Fasting, fasting, time of examination during the menstrual cycle, abstaining from sex, what type of clothes to wear, stopping the use of medical devices. medications you are taking...
Pre-pregnancy screening and testing is an important step to take for every couple to understand their own health status and have the best preparation for the baby before birth.
Currently, Vinmec International General Hospital applies prenatal and newborn screening methods.

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