What medicine can you take during pregnancy?
1. Principles of drug use during pregnancy
All drugs on the market today have been and are being classified according to their risk to pregnancy. The classification of these drugs is based on the weighting of the benefits and risks of the specific drug studies in animals and humans. Drugs in groups A, B or C are considered safe to use during pregnancy:
2. Drugs of choice for pregnant women
2.1. Pain reliever or headache medicine Acetaminophen is the drug of choice for headache relief during pregnancy. This drug is being used quite commonly with very few side effects reported. On the other hand, aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) should be avoided during pregnancy. NSAIDs include active ingredients such as: ibuprofen, ketoprofen, naproxen,...
If a woman's pain is particularly severe (eg, pain after surgery), a doctor may recommend a procedure. short-term pain relief with opioids. If taken as directed by your doctor, these drugs are unlikely to significantly affect the development of your unborn baby. However, use of opioids during pregnancy carries a risk of neonatal withdrawal syndrome (NAS).
2.2. Cold and flu medicines To date, cold and flu medicines have not been well studied to be used safely during pregnancy. Some researchers recommend that pregnant women try to wait until after 12 weeks of pregnancy before taking cold and flu medicines, which can reduce any potential risks to the baby during the first trimester.
Cold and flu medicines that are considered safe for pregnant women include:
Certain types of cough syrups; Dextromethorphan and dextromethorphan-guaifenesin syrup; expectorant (for daytime cough); Nocturnal cough medicine; Acetaminophen for pain relief and fever reduction. For the common cold, the patient should be treated at home before resorting to medication in the following ways:
Focus on resting; Drink enough water daily to combat dehydration; Gargle with salt water to relieve sore throat; Use saline nasal drops to combat nasal congestion; Humidify the air in the room; Use menthol on your breasts to soothe chest pain; Use a decongestant patch to open the airways; Use cough drops or lozenges. 2.3. Heartburn and Reflux Medicine Over-the-counter antacids that are generally safe during pregnancy include:
Aluminum hydroxide and magnesium hydroxide; Calcium carbonate; Simethicone; Famotidine. For severe heartburn, your doctor may recommend an H2-channel blocker, such as ranitidine and cimetidine. In addition, lifestyle changes will help alleviate some heartburn:
Wear loose-fitting clothes so as not to put pressure on the abdomen; Avoid foods that can cause reflux; Do not lie down immediately after eating. Avoid eating too much before going to bed; Sleep with your head up (pillow) at night; Divide main meals into several smaller meals throughout the day. In rare cases, heartburn can be a sign of HELLP syndrome, a serious pregnancy complication.
2.4. Allergy medications Mild allergies may respond well to lifestyle changes. If it is necessary to use the drug during pregnancy, the following group of oral antihistamines are considered safe:
Diphenhydramine; Chlorpheniramine; Loratadine; Cetirizine. If the allergy is more severe, the doctor may recommend that the patient use a low dose corticosteroid spray in combination with an oral antihistamine, including:
Budesonide; Fluticasone; Mometasone. In addition, pregnant women can actively avoid allergens by:
Limiting exposure to pollen, dust, pet dander; Regularly wash off pollen, dust, hair from skin and hair; Wear a mask and a long-sleeved shirt when going outdoors, limit doing jobs that are easily exposed to allergens, such as mowing the lawn, cleaning dusty rooms; Rinse your nose with salt water. 2.5. Medicines for constipation Stool softeners are considered safe during pregnancy and effective for constipation. Laxatives can also be used by pregnant women, but should be consulted by a doctor. To treat constipation, pregnant women can apply the following ways:
Drink plenty of water: Juice plum is a suitable example for pregnant women; Exercise regularly every day to strengthen the pelvic floor muscles; Add more fiber (found in fruits, vegetables, legumes and whole grains); 2.6. Anti-nausea and vomiting medications Morning sickness is a common symptom in the first trimester of pregnancy. However, taking medication during pregnancy to prevent vomiting is not always necessary. Accordingly, pregnant women should apply home remedies, such as dividing meals or drinking ginger juice to warm the abdomen.
Vitamin B6; Doxylamine succinate; Dimenhydrinate. For severe nausea and vomiting, your doctor may prescribe:
Doxylamine succinate - pyridoxine hydrochloride; Ondansetron. 2.7. Hemorrhoid Medications Hemorrhoids often appear during pregnancy due to swollen blood vessels or long-term constipation. Pregnancy medication options to treat hemorrhoids include:
Cold patch or patches containing witch hazel (extracted from the species Hamamelis virginiana); Preparation H® hemorrhoid suppositories; Anusol. Some of the following methods can relieve symptoms:
Soak hemorrhoids with warm water; Avoid sitting too much. Stand or lie on your side if possible; Try using a cushion or pillow for hemorrhoids while sitting; Treat constipation, by using stool softeners, drinking plenty of water, exercising more, and eating more fiber. 2.8. Treating Yeast Infections Yeast infections are quite common in pregnant women. However, it is advisable to consult a doctor for an accurate diagnosis before self-treating at home. Medications used during pregnancy to treat yeast infections include:
Miconazole; Clotrimazole; Butoconazole. Home remedies and natural remedies are not recommended for yeast infections during pregnancy.
2.9. Medicines for skin rashes, cuts and scrapes Rash and itchy skin during pregnancy can be treated with a cream containing hydrocortisone (over-the-counter). However, if you experience symptoms such as itchy papules, urticaria, pregnant women should consult a doctor to be prescribed the appropriate medication. For cuts and abrasions, pregnant women need to clean the wound. with soap and water, then an over-the-counter antibiotic ointment can be applied to prevent infection.
2.10. Sedatives and sleeping pills Insomnia is a very common condition for pregnant women. Safe medications for insomnia during pregnancy are those in the diphenhydramine class (for example, Sominex and Nytol). Doxylamine succinate is also an appropriate option. If over-the-counter medications do not help, your doctor may consider the following:
Tricyclic antidepressants with sedative effects; Drugs of the benzodiazepine group. Drugs in the benzodiazepine group have a risk of causing cleft lip and cleft palate. Using drugs during pregnancy in the last months of pregnancy can reduce the incidence of this malformation. To improve sleep, instead of taking medication, pregnant women can try the following:
Go to bed on time and sleep enough sleep; Exercise regularly; Limit naps to no more than 30 minutes per day; Limit caffeine and other stimulants that affect sleep; Create a routine to help you fall asleep: For example, listen to music or do yoga before bed; Consider alternative treatments, such as meditation or acupuncture. 2.11. Use of dietary supplements during pregnancy Pregnant women before taking any food or micronutrient should consult a doctor. Vitamins are recommended to take prenatal supplements to provide more. essential vitamins and minerals for pregnant women (such as folate). However, other supplements can pose risks to your baby and interact with medications you are taking. Before becoming pregnant, you may be taking prescription medications to treat conditions such as hyperthyroidism. blood pressure, dyslipidemia, thyroid disease, etc. In many cases, pregnant women need to adjust the dosage or switch to other drugs that are safer for mother and baby.
In all cases of drug use during pregnancy, pregnant women should exercise extreme caution and consult their doctor before starting any course of treatment.
Để đặt lịch khám tại viện, Quý khách vui lòng bấm số HOTLINE hoặc đặt lịch trực tiếp TẠI ĐÂY. Tải và đặt lịch khám tự động trên ứng dụng MyVinmec để được giảm ngay 15% phí khám khi đặt hẹn khám lần đầu trên toàn hệ thống Vinmec (áp dụng từ 17/10 - 31/12/2022). Quý khách cũng có thể quản lý, theo dõi lịch và đặt hẹn tư vấn từ xa qua video với các bác sĩ Vinmec mọi lúc mọi nơi ngay trên ứng dụng.
Reference source: healthline.com