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Oral complications in diabetic patients

The article is professionally consulted by Master, Doctor Vu Thi Duyen - Doctor of Nephrology - Endocrinology - Department of Medical Examination & Internal Medicine - Vinmec Hai Phong International General Hospital. The doctor has more than 11 years of experience in medical examination and treatment of general internal medicine, especially has strengths in examination and treatment specialized in nephrology - Endocrinology.
Chronic diabetes mellitus causes many dangerous complications for patients, including dental diseases. Dental diseases: Dental caries, gingivitis, periodontitis, abscesses...If not diagnosed and treated early, patients can have serious consequences such as tooth loss, early tooth loss or gum recession, even Even tooth abscess causes bacteremia.

1. How does diabetes affect your teeth?

Diabetes and dental disease go hand in hand:
In patients with diabetes, the sugar content in saliva will be much higher than in the general population. This is an ideal opportunity and environment for harmful bacteria to multiply and grow rapidly. Bacteria combine with food in the mouth to form plaque that causes tooth decay, gingivitis, tooth abscess or makes the patient's breath unpleasant.
High blood sugar causes blood vessel damage and narrowing of blood vessels. This results in reduced blood flow to the gums. When a patient has diabetes, the patient's resistance is reduced than usual, increasing the risk of gum infection and periodontal disease for the patient. In addition, diabetes also increases the risk of thrush, dry mouth, mouth ulcers and some infections caused by fungi.
Tiểu đường gây ra nhiều bệnh lý răng miệng
Tiểu đường gây ra nhiều bệnh lý răng miệng

2. What are the common complications of diabetes?

The risk of oral diseases in diabetics is much higher than in the general population. Some common oral diseases caused by diabetes are:
Tooth decay: The plaque on the teeth is formed by the combination of excess food stuck between the teeth and bacteria if it is not cleaned regularly. and properly, in the long run will produce acid, attack on the patient's tooth surface causing tooth decay.
Gingivitis: Over time, the plaque on the teeth will turn into tartar if not cleaned and removed properly. Tartar will irritate the gums, make the gums red, swollen, bleed and lead to inflamed gums.
Periodontitis: This is a serious condition of gingivitis if not diagnosed and treated early. Periodontitis destroys the soft tissues, bones and ligaments that support the teeth, causing the patient's teeth to become loose, receding gums and can lead to tooth loss (diabetic tooth loss).
Periodontitis greatly affects patients with diabetes because the disease increases blood sugar levels and reduces the patient's ability to control blood sugar.
Thrush: This is a disease caused by the fungus Candida. Signs of thrush include: pain, white or red spots on the tongue, cheeks or roof of the mouth, swollen gums, and the formation of open sores.
This oral disease will develop rapidly if the patient's blood sugar is not strictly controlled. To minimize this disease, patients need to clean their teeth regularly and cleanly, if diagnosed with thrush caused by candida fungus, the patient may be prescribed antifungal medication by the doctor. to treat.
Dry mouth: This is a common phenomenon in patients with diabetes. When you have diabetes, the process of saliva secretion is impaired, leading to a lack of saliva and causing dry mouth for the patient. Dry mouth is also one of the causes that make patients susceptible to oral diseases such as ulcers, tooth decay, gingivitis, thrush,...
Tiểu đường có thể là nguyên nhân gây khô miệng
Tiểu đường có thể là nguyên nhân gây khô miệng

3. Common manifestations of oral disease in people with diabetes

Common manifestations of oral disease in people with diabetes include:
Frequent bleeding of the roots and gums, especially when brushing or flossing. The gums are red and swollen, and there is often pus between the teeth and gums. It is often painful to chew. Loose teeth, receding gums, teeth that don't fit together. The gums are separated from the teeth, which can make the inner teeth longer and larger. Long-lasting bad breath, even with very thorough and very clean brushing.

4. Oral disease in diabetic patients need to prevent what?

Diet, living habits, blood sugar control and daily oral care are important factors to prevent oral complications in people with diabetes:
People with diabetes should not overdo it. Many foods contain sugar and starch. Limit smoking as much as possible because smoking increases your risk of developing periodontitis and thrush. Good control of blood sugar: Monitor and check blood sugar regularly, strictly follow the doctor's instructions to keep blood sugar stable. If you find that diabetes medications cause dry mouth, you should immediately notify your treating doctor for early treatment. Clean teeth at least 2 times a day. When brushing teeth, avoid vigorous rubbing, should use a toothbrush with soft bristles and a toothpaste containing fluorine, this helps diabetics to prevent oral diseases. When cleaning teeth should use dental floss to remove plaque in between teeth instead of using toothpicks to floss. Use physiological saline to rinse your mouth after each meal. Go to reputable hospitals to periodically clean tartar.

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