CDC recommendations (USA) on immunizations for children and adolescents under 18 years of age
The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends vaccination schedules for children under 18 years of age, including determining the type of vaccine needed based on age and the appropriate interval for vaccination. added if missed, as well as some notes for special situations.
1. Diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis vaccine (DTaP)
Routine DTaP vaccination with 5 doses at full 2 months old, 4 months old, 6 months old, about 15 - 18 months old and 4-6 years old.
If the 4th dose is given when the child is 4 years of age or older, the 5th dose is not necessary.
The benefit of DTaP vaccination is that it reduces the risk of 3 diphtheria, whooping cough and tetanus very common in young children.
2. Haemophilus influenzae type b (HIB) vaccine
Routine vaccination schedule will be different for each brand, specifically:
ActHIB, Hiberix or Pentacel: Complete 4 doses at 2 months old, 4 months old, 6 months old, and the last dose is 12 - 15 months old; PedvaxHIB: Only 3 doses are needed at 2 months of age, 4 months of age, and a final dose at 12-15 months of age. If a child has missed the recommended age-appropriate HIB vaccination schedule, an additional dose can be given with the following precautions:
First dose at 7 - 11 months of age: Continue with 2nd dose after at least 4 weeks. The 3rd dose (last dose) should be given between 12-15 months of age or 8 weeks after the 2nd dose (whichever is later); 1st dose at 12-14 months of age: Continue with 2nd dose (last dose) at least 8 weeks after 1st dose; 1st dose before 12 months of age and 2nd dose before 15 months of age: Continue with 3rd dose (last dose) 8 weeks after 2nd dose; Have received 2 doses of PedvaxHIB vaccine before 12 months of age: Continue to give the 3rd dose (the last dose) when the child is 12 - 59 months old and must be at least 8 weeks after the 2nd dose; Children aged 15 - 59 months who have not been vaccinated: Only 1 dose is given.
3. Hepatitis A (HepA) vaccine
Get 2 full doses of hepatitis A vaccine before the child turns 2 years old, can be started as early as 12 months of age. The interval between 2 doses is at least 6 months apart (for Havrix brand it is from 6 to 12 months; for Vaqta brand it is from 6 to 18 months).
However, if a child has missed the recommended immunization schedule, anyone 2 years of age or older can get the HepA vaccine if they want. The minimum interval between doses is still 6 months.
In addition, adolescents 18 years of age and older can also receive the combination HepA and HepB vaccine (brand Twinrix) in 1 of 2 forms:
3 doses, spaced between doses 1 month and 6 months; Inject 4 doses, interval between doses is 7 days, from 21 to 30 days, and finally 12 months.
4. Hepatitis B (HepB) Vaccine
It is necessary to get 3 doses of HepB vaccine from birth, then at 1 - 2 months of age, and finally at 6 - 18 months of age. Note:
If the fetus is not vaccinated with hepatitis B vaccine right after birth, the first dose must be given as soon as possible; The first infant dose will also be based on the mother's HBsAg positive/negative/unknown status; The last (3rd) dose must be given before the baby is 24 weeks old. The minimum interval between specific doses is:
From the first dose to the second dose: 4 weeks; From 2nd to 3rd dose: 8 weeks; From 1st dose to 3rd dose: 16 weeks. Note that in the Under-18 Immunization Program, adolescents 11-15 years of age only need 2 doses of HepB vaccine with a interval of at least 4 months (adult brand Recombivax HB).
5. HPV vaccine
Routine HPV vaccination is recommended for all adolescents 11 to 12 years of age (can be started as early as age 9) and older than 18 years if not fully vaccinated.
Need 2 or 3 doses of HPV vaccine, depending on the age to start vaccination as follows:
Start vaccination at 9-14 years old: 2 doses, the interval between doses is 6-12 months (evening) at least 5 months); Starting injection at 15 years of age or older: Inject 3 doses, the interval between doses is 1 - 2 months and 6 months, respectively (minimum is 3 - 5 months). If completed according to the HPV vaccine schedule with any brand, no additional doses will be needed.
Some special notes:
For immunocompromised people, including HIV infection: Inject all 3 doses as above; Children who have been sexually abused or assaulted: HPV vaccination should be started at age 9; Pregnancy: The HPV vaccine should not be given during pregnancy; However, intervention is not necessary if this vaccine is accidentally administered during pregnancy and it is not necessary to take a pregnancy test during vaccination.
6. Inactivated polio vaccine (IPV)
Routine vaccination schedule with inactivated polio vaccine is 4 doses when the child is 2 months old, 4 months old, about 6-18 months old, and finally 4-6 years old. The fourth dose should be given when the child is 4 years of age or older and at least 6 months after the previous dose.
If the combination vaccine containing IPV is used, the child can be given more than 4 doses and before 4 years of age. However, an additional dose should still be given when the child is 4 years old or older and at least 6 months after the previous dose.
During the first 6 months of life, if you have to travel to a polio-endemic area or during an outbreak, parents should consult a doctor about vaccination.
In general, the IPV vaccine is only available in the under-18 immunization program and is not recommended for people 18 years of age and older.
7. Flu vaccine
Children 6 months of age and older should get 1 dose of flu vaccine every year. Choosing the right vaccine will depend on the age and health of the child.
For children aged 6 months - 8 years who have not received at least 2 doses of influenza vaccine, 2 additional doses should be given at least 4 weeks apart.
Children who are allergic to eggs and have a rash: Because the flu vaccine contains a small amount of egg protein, when injecting children with egg allergies, you should choose a seasonal flu vaccine. appropriate for age and health status; Severe allergy to eggs, causing angioedema, respiratory failure: When receiving the annual flu vaccine, it is necessary to have the supervision of a doctor to promptly recognize and control serious allergic conditions.
8. Measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine
Routine vaccination with 2 doses of MMR vaccine, the first dose when the child is 12-15 months old, the second dose at 4-6 years old. Get the 2nd dose as early as 4 weeks after the 1st dose.
If children and adolescents have not been vaccinated with MMR according to the recommended schedule, 2 doses can be given at least 4 weeks apart. The maximum age for using the measles, mumps and rubella vaccine is 12 years old.
9. Meningococcal vaccine (groups A, C, W, Y)
Routine vaccination with 2 doses of meningococcal vaccine, the first dose for children aged 11-12 years old, the second dose for adolescents 16 years old. Some of the more popular brands today include MenACWY-CRM, Menveo, MenACWY-D, and Menactra.
If the child has missed the immunization schedule under the age of 18, the child can get an additional shot as follows:
From 13 - 15 years old: Get the first dose immediately and the second booster dose between 16 - 18 years old (approx. the minimum interval between 2 doses is 8 weeks); From 16 to 18 years old: Only 1 dose of meningococcal vaccine is given.
10. Meningococcal vaccine (group B)
For adolescents who are not at high risk for group B meningococcal disease aged 16 - 23 years (most commonly 16 - 18 years), MenB vaccination will be based on need personal and clinical indications of the doctor; Brand Bexsero: Inject 2 doses at least 1 month apart; Brand Trumenba: Inject 2 doses at least 6 months apart. If dose 2 is given earlier than 6 months, a 3rd dose should be given at least 4 months after the 2nd dose. Especially, for people who have had their spleen removed or have impaired function, (including sickle cell disease). ), long-term nutritional deficiencies or on eculizumab:
Bexsero brand: Inject 2 doses at least 1 month apart; Trumenba brand: Inject all 3 doses, the interval between doses is 1 - 2 months and 6 months, respectively. Note, Bexsero and Trumenba are not interchangeable, only the same product should be used for all doses during immunization.
11. Pneumococcal vaccine
Routinely vaccinate 4 doses of PCV13 vaccine when the child is 2 months old, 4 months old, 6 months old and finally 12-15 months old.
If the recommended PCV13 vaccination schedule has been missed, a missing dose of PCV13 can be given to children aged 24-59 months who are healthy.
12. Rotavirus vaccine
Routine vaccination schedule with Rotavirus vaccine based on brand is as follows:
Rotarix: Complete 2 doses when the child is 2 months old and 4 months old; RotaTeq: Complete 3 doses when the child is 2 months old, 4 months old and finally 6 months old. In the case of 1 injection using RotaTeq or unknown brand, the default is to inject 3 full doses.
Note, the Rotavirus vaccine should not be started when the baby is 15 weeks old. The maximum age for the last dose is 8 months of age in children.
13. Tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis (Tdap) vaccine
Routine vaccination against 3 common tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis diseases as follows:
Adolescents 11 - 12 years old: Inject 1 dose of Tdap vaccine; Pregnancy: Get 1 dose of Tdap vaccine per pregnancy, preferably around 27 - 36 weeks of pregnancy; Tdap may be given at any time from the last dose of a single vaccine containing the tetanus or diphtheria component. If a child has not been following the recommended schedule of immunizations, a booster shot can be given as follows:
Unvaccinated adolescents 13-18 years of age: Get 1 dose of Tdap vaccine immediately, then alternate 10 years of Td booster injections; Adolescents aged 7 - 18 years who are not fully immunized with DTaP: Administer 1 dose of Tdap vaccine immediately, if additional doses are needed, Td can be used; Children 7 - 10 accidentally pre-vaccinated with Tdap: Continue to get 1 dose of Tdap as recommended at 11-12 years of age.
14. Chickenpox vaccine
Routine vaccination with 2 doses of chickenpox vaccine, the first dose when the child is 12-15 months old and the second dose when the child is 4-6 years old. The second dose may be given after the first dose as early as 3 months.
For adolescents aged 7 - 18 years who are still not immune, 2 additional doses are required as follows:
From 7 to 12 years old: The interval between 2 doses is usually 3 months (minimum 4 months). the week); 13 years of age and older: The interval between 2 doses is usually 4 - 8 weeks (minimum 4 weeks) The maximum age for using the chickenpox combination vaccine is 12 years old. There are many benefits of vaccination, the most prominent of which are helping the body produce antigens to fight dangerous diseases, reducing the risk of complications and mortality, thereby protecting health and help children develop comprehensively both physically and mentally. Parents should allow their children to fully and properly comply with the recommended immunization schedule under 18 years of age, this will not only protect an individual but also the community, reducing the cost of medical care throughout the life. long time in life.
At Vinmec International General Hospital, there is a source of high-quality vaccines, of clear origin, suitable for each age group to be vaccinated, ensuring safety from the stage of registration, preservation to putting into use.
Reference source: cdc.gov