Children with measles before the age of vaccination: How to prevent disease?
The article is professionally consulted by Master, Doctor Vu Quoc Anh - Pediatrician - Department of Pediatrics - Neonatology - Vinmec Danang International General Hospital.
According to the measles vaccination schedule in the Expanded Immunization Program, children are only 9 months old when they are eligible for vaccination. For children who are not yet old enough to be vaccinated with measles vaccine, it is necessary to have a reasonable child care regimen, nutritional supplements to increase the child's resistance; Avoid contact with children who are suspected of having measles, crowded places and do not go to epidemic areas.
1. How dangerous is measles to children?
Measles is an acute infectious disease, spread through the respiratory tract and caused by the measles virus. According to statistics, the age of children from 1 to 7 months of age with measles will be more than that of older children. After measles, children have symptoms such as fever, rash, runny nose, cough, conjunctivitis, inflammation of the respiratory and digestive tracts.
When children from 1 to 7 months have typhus fever, measles virus will enter the body, causing the child to have a high fever continuously for a long time. Usually, children between the ages of 1 month and 7 months with a fever of 38 degrees, the body's immunity has been reduced, so if not treated promptly, measles in children can be left behind. dangerous complications such as:
otitis media: This is a complication that must always be thought of first. Severe pneumonia: The cause is often due to superinfection with other bacteria, the time to appear complications is often late after the rash. Manifestations include shortness of breath, rapid breathing, high fever, severe infection symptoms, crackles when heard in the lungs, high white blood cell count, and on X-ray, scattered faint nodules of inflammation are seen on X-ray. lung. Encephalitis, meningitis: are important neurological complications, can cause death and leave many sequelae later. Complications of measles appear in the first week of the rash. Manifestations include: high fever, convulsions, localized neurological signs such as hemiplegia, nerve palsy, impaired consciousness even coma. The dangerous thing is that when there is a complication of encephalitis, after the child passes the danger of life, it also leaves many serious physical and mental sequelae later.
Digestive complications: Oral mucositis, late-appearing superinfection due to a type of gangrene bacteria causing necrosis of the oral mucosa, appearance of bad breath .., Enteritis with diarrhea is usually more severe than with other viral diarrhea. Eye complications, corneal ulcers: Can be seen in children with malnutrition, vitamin A deficiency, this complication can leave permanent blindness sequelae. Children suffering from malnutrition after measles.
2. Age of measles vaccination for children
According to the measles vaccination schedule in the Expanded Immunization Program, the vaccination schedule is applied as follows:
The first dose when the child is 9 months old and the second dose when the child is 18 months old. In campaign vaccination: vaccination for all subjects within the scope of the campaign. The minimum interval between 2 doses of measles vaccine is 1 month. For service vaccinations: The manufacturer's instructions should be followed. People of all ages can get the measles vaccine. Measles - Mumps - Rubella combination vaccine can be vaccinated at 12 months of age. Need 1 injection for children at 12 to 15 months and a booster shot after 2-5 years. In case of fever, acute infection is progressing, it is necessary to postpone the injection. When cured, can be injected. Measles vaccine is only given to children aged 1 to 8 months with measles when directed by the Expanded Immunization Program in case of necessity. All cases of measles vaccination before 9 months of age need to be vaccinated immediately when the child is full 9 months old. Vaccination before 9 months of age does not count as 1 dose of vaccine. Children over 18 months of age who have not received two doses of measles vaccine should receive the full dose as soon as possible to effectively prevent the disease.
3. Measles prevention for children under vaccination age
For children who are already 9 months old, the best way to prevent disease is to have them vaccinated. Children who have passed the vaccination schedule but have not yet caught measles should go to a health facility for advice and full vaccination. This is also a way to prevent the risk of spreading the disease to the community. But for children under 1 month old to 8 months old with measles, who are not yet of age to be vaccinated with measles vaccine, it is necessary to have a reasonable child care regimen, nutritional supplements to increase the child's resistance.
Avoid letting children come into contact with people suspected of having measles, crowded places, do not go to epidemic areas; Parents clean the body when coming home from outside to minimize the spread of disease to children.
Women before pregnancy should be fully vaccinated and complete the vaccination schedule 3 months before the measles - mumps - rubella vaccine; Chicken pox; Flu to create immunity for both mother and baby during pregnancy.
If the child has a fever; a measles-like rash, which begins on the face and then spreads to the feet and hands; accompanied by conjunctivitis of the eye; If you have a respiratory infection (cough, runny nose, wheezing, difficulty breathing,...) then parents should think about measles. At that time, it is necessary to isolate at home; take good care and nutrition; reduce fever, lie in a cool place, avoid drafts, do not abstain in the diet, to promptly compensate for nutrients lost due to the infection process.
If your baby has a high fever continuously ≥ 39°C- 40°C, has difficulty breathing, has diarrhea, loses water, coughs a lot, is tired, doesn't eat, doesn't play, has pneumonia, has respiratory failure... children to the hospital immediately to avoid complications.
As a key area of Vinmec Health system, Pediatrics Department always brings satisfaction to customers and is highly appreciated by industry experts with:
Gathering a team of top doctors and nurses in Pediatrics : consists of leading experts with high professional qualifications (professors, associate professors, doctorates, masters), experienced, worked at major hospitals such as Bach Mai, 108.. Doctors All doctors are well-trained, professional, conscientious, knowledgeable about young psychology. In addition to domestic pediatric specialists, the Department of Pediatrics also has the participation of foreign experts (Japan, Singapore, Australia, USA) who are always pioneers in applying the latest and most effective treatment regimens. . Comprehensive services: In the field of Pediatrics, Vinmec provides a series of continuous medical examination and treatment services from Newborn to Pediatric and Vaccine,... according to international standards to help parents take care of their baby's health from birth to childhood. from birth to adulthood Specialized techniques: Vinmec has successfully deployed many specialized techniques to make the treatment of difficult diseases in Pediatrics more effective: neurosurgery - skull surgery, stem cell transplantation. blood in cancer treatment. Professional care: In addition to understanding children's psychology, Vinmec also pays special attention to the children's play space, helping them to have fun and get used to the hospital's environment, cooperate in treatment, improve the efficiency of medical treatment. Master. Dr. Vu Quoc Anh has nearly 10 years of experience as a resident doctor and treating doctor at Hue Central Hospital and Danang Children's Hospital. Currently, he is a Pediatrician - Vinmec Danang International General Hospital.
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