Is there a test to diagnose jaundice in babies?

The article was professionally consulted with Specialist Doctor I Dang Thi Ngoc Chuong - Pediatrician - Pediatrics - Neonatal Department, Vinmec Central Park International General Hospital.
Jaundice is a fairly common condition for most babies. This usually goes away after a while. However, in exceptional cases, it is a sign of health problems that the child is having.

1. What is Jaundice?

About 60% of full-term infants develop jaundice during the first week or two of life. In fact, almost all babies have jaundice, but we don't always notice it. For most babies, this is a temporary, harmless condition that resolves on its own or requires only mild treatments. But in some rare cases, it can have very serious effects, so it is important that we pay attention to it.
Jaundice is caused by high levels of a pigment in the blood called bilirubin that gives the skin its yellow color. Our blood all contains bilirubin. Bilirubin is one of the by-products created when old red blood cells are broken down. Normally, the bilirubin is removed from the blood by the liver and the body then excretes the bilirubin with a bowel movement. During pregnancy, the mother's liver excretes bilirubin for the baby. But after birth, a baby's liver takes a while to start doing this job. As a result, the pigment builds up in the baby's blood and causes the baby's skin to turn yellow.
vàng da ỏ trẻ sơ sinh
Có khoảng 60 % trẻ sinh đủ tháng bị vàng da trong một hoặc 2 tuần đầu đời

2. Can breast milk cause jaundice?

Breastfeeding can cause jaundice, but mild jaundice
Not enough fluids will cause bilirubin in the blood to rise. So, if your baby is breastfed and hasn't been getting a lot of breast milk, there's a good chance he or she will develop jaundice. Formula-fed babies can also develop jaundice if they don't get enough formula. If you think your baby is not getting enough breast milk, discuss breastfeeding with your doctor for advice, more information and a suitable solution. Once your baby is getting enough breast milk through improved lactation techniques, you should feed him more often, or supplement expressed breast milk or formula as jaundice may go away. lost. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends that you feed your baby at least 8 to 12 times a day for the first few days.
Some babies may experience breast milk jaundice during the first few weeks. It is usually diagnosed between 7 and 11 days of age. This type of jaundice, called physiological jaundice, usually appears on the 2nd or 3rd day of the baby's life and goes away on its own within two weeks of birth. In premature babies, it peaks between 5 and 7 days and can take up to two months to go away. The yellow color tends to appear first on a child's face, then moves down to the baby's neck and chest and continues down to the toes.
Your baby can still feed well and gain weight normally, but something in breast milk interferes with the liver's ability to process bilirubin. This often occurs in conjunction with physiological jaundice and it may persist for several weeks or even months. Breast milk jaundice is quite common in exclusively breastfed babies and is generally considered harmless. If your baby's bilirubin level rises too high, your doctor may suggest that you stop breastfeeding for 1 or 2 days to lower it. You can use a breast pump to maintain your milk supply during this time, and once your bilirubin levels drop, you can start breastfeeding again.
Mẹ nâng ngực có nên cho trẻ bú? (Phần 2)
Cho trẻ bú sữa mẹ không gây ra vàng da, nhưng vàng da dễ xảy ra hơn ở những đứa trẻ có bú mẹ

3. Is jaundice dangerous?

In most cases, jaundice is not a cause for concern. But if a baby's bilirubin level gets too high, jaundice can cause permanent damage to the nervous system. A very small percentage of infants with jaundice develop a condition called kernicterus, which can lead to deafness, developmental delay, or a form of cerebral palsy.

4. Are some babies more prone to jaundice than others?

Some babies are more likely to have jaundice if they belong to a group that has characteristics such as:
Babies with a sibling with jaundice Babies with birth bruises (red blood cells are part of the bruise) cyanosis breaks down and produces bilirubin as a byproduct) Babies born prematurely, because their immature livers may not be able to process bilirubin levels Children of East Asian descent Children with a certain genetic disorder (such as Gilbert's syndrome; hereditary red blood cell membrane defect; galactosemia, an inherited metabolic disorder) Children with certain medical conditions such as cystic fibrosis or hypothyroidism Jaundice within 24 hours Early postpartum depression can also be caused by serious conditions such as liver, gallbladder, and intestinal disorders, infections, birth trauma, certain diseases, or premature birth (born before 28 weeks of age). Rh factor incompatibility and blood type incompatibility can also cause jaundice during the first day of life.
Trẻ sinh non rất dễ mắc nhiễm khuẩn sơ sinh
Trẻ sinh non có nhiều khả năng bị vàng da hơn trẻ em bình thường

5. Tests to diagnose jaundice in babies

The medical staff will check to see if the baby had jaundice at birth. Ideally, the baby should be seen 3 to 5 days after birth because then the baby's bilirubin level is likely to reach the highest score. If there's any concern about your child's jaundice, the doctor may do a skin test or blood test to check the baby's bilirubin level. Testing will definitely be done if a baby develops jaundice within the first 24 hours, as this is more likely to be an unusual problem. However, if you are discharged from the hospital soon after giving birth and the jaundice may be present while you are not in the hospital, you can still tell it by, for example, bringing your baby into a room with lots of natural light or fluorescent light. If the child has fair skin, gently press your finger against the child's forehead, nose, or chest and look for a yellow color in the skin when the pressure is released. If your child has dark skin, check for yellow in his gums or the whites of his eyes.
If the whites of your baby's eyes, belly or hands or feet are yellow, call the doctor. Or if your baby has trouble waking up from sleep, is fussy, or doesn't want to eat, and if your baby has mild jaundice for more than three weeks, you should also seek help from your doctor.

6. When is jaundice considered serious?

If a baby has jaundice in the first 24 hours after birth it is always considered serious and the baby will need to be monitored and treated closely. However, this type of jaundice is uncommon and is usually caused by blood type incompatibility between mother and child. If the mother's blood type is O or Rh negative, it may not be compatible with the baby's blood type.
During your first prenatal appointment, your doctor may have checked your blood type to see if you are at risk, but there is no way to know for sure until after the baby is born and you know what your baby's blood type is.
If your healthcare provider is concerned about incompatible blood types, a blood sample will be taken from your baby at birth to find out his or her blood type. (Some healthcare professionals may decide to delay doing blood tests until a baby shows signs of developing jaundice, because the baby may be fine even if the mother's blood type is not compatible.)
A Coombs test will also be done to see if the incompatibility affects the baby's blood cells. If the child has a blood type incompatibility or the Coombs test is positive, the child will be closely monitored for jaundice.
Vàng da kéo dài ở trẻ sơ sinh
Nếu một đứa trẻ bị vàng da trong 24 giờ đầu tiên sau khi sinh thì nó luôn được coi là nghiêm trọng và trẻ sẽ cần được theo dõi và điều trị chặt chẽ

7. How to treat jaundice?

Most jaundice does not require treatment, but when it is, light therapy is considered very safe and effective for treating jaundice. The process involves placing the naked baby in a crib, blindfolded, under a blue light, and ultraviolet light changing the bilirubin into a form that the baby can more easily excrete in the urine. Another option is to wrap the baby in a fiber optic blanket known as a bili blanket or bili mattress. With your doctor's permission, you can rent these blankets to treat your baby at home.
Phototherapy is usually effective, but if your baby has severe jaundice or his bilirubin level continues to rise despite phototherapy treatment, he or she may need to be taken to the room. special care for blood transfusion. This transfusion replaces part of the baby's blood that contains high levels of bilirubin with donor blood that contains normal levels.
Another thing you can do yourself to help reduce jaundice is to make sure your baby is getting plenty of breast milk or formula, so he or she will have frequent bowel movements. If you have any concerns about jaundice, consult your doctor to make sure you're taking the right steps to get your baby's rosy skin back.
Newborns in general are susceptible to respiratory diseases, respiratory infections and gastrointestinal infections if they are introduced to solid foods early or are not properly stored and prepared. To protect children's health, parents should do well to exclusively breastfeed their babies for the first 6 months (if possible) and vaccinate on schedule. As soon as a child shows symptoms such as anorexia, fatigue, and crying, the child needs to go to the hospital to be consulted by a specialist for monitoring and treatment. The pediatric department at Vinmec International General Hospital is the address for receiving and examining diseases that infants and young children are susceptible to: viral fever, bacterial fever, otitis media, pneumonia in children. With a system of facilities, modern medical equipment, sterile space, minimizing the impact as well as the risk of disease spread, Vinmec will bring satisfaction to customers. and is highly appreciated by industry experts with:
Gathering a team of leading pediatricians: including leading experts with high professional qualifications (professors, associate professors, doctors, Master's degree), experienced, worked at major hospitals such as Bach Mai, 108.. The doctors are all well-trained, professional, conscientious, knowledgeable about young psychology. In addition to domestic pediatric specialists, the Department of Pediatrics also has the participation of foreign experts (Japan, Singapore, Australia, USA) who are always pioneers in applying the latest and most effective treatment regimens. . Comprehensive services: In the field of Pediatrics, Vinmec provides a series of continuous medical examination and treatment services from Newborn to Pediatric and Vaccine,... according to international standards to help parents take care of their baby's health from birth to childhood. Advanced techniques: Vinmec has successfully deployed many specialized techniques to make the treatment of difficult diseases in pediatrics more effective: neurosurgery - skull, stem cell transplant blood in cancer treatment. Professional care: In addition to understanding children's psychology, Vinmec also pays special attention to the children's play space, helping them to play comfortably and get used to the hospital's environment, cooperate in treatment, improve the efficiency of medical treatment.

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Reference source: babycenter.com

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