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Season change, be alert for upper respiratory infections in children

The article was professionally consulted with Specialist Doctor I Bui Thi Ha - Pediatrician - Neonatologist - Department of Pediatrics - Neonatology - Vinmec Ha Long International General Hospital.
The World Health Organization (WHO) warns that upper respiratory tract infections (influenza, nasopharyngitis, pneumonia, bronchitis, otitis media...) have caused 10 million deaths every year. five. According to statistics, on average, a child under 5 years old can get an upper respiratory infection 4-6 times in a year, which makes the child's health decline, physical and intellectual retardation.

1. Inflammation of the upper respiratory tract in children

The respiratory system is counted starting from the anterior nasopharynx to the alveoli in the lungs. The upper respiratory tract includes: nose, pharynx, pharynx, sinuses and larynx. The function of the upper respiratory system is to receive air from the outside, humidify the air, heat it, and filter it before it enters the lungs. Then the lower respiratory system will perform the functions of filtration and gas exchange.
Upper respiratory tract infection is the collective name of many different diseases, from the nose to the pharynx junction, mainly rhinitis, pharyngitis, pharyngitis lymphatic system in young children (VA), inflammation ear. Upper respiratory tract infections may resolve spontaneously or require treatment or may progress to lower respiratory tract infections (laryngitis, bronchitis, bronchiolitis, or pneumonia). It can be seen that the upper respiratory system is the first organ exposed to adverse effects from the environment, including bacteria, molds... so it is extremely sensitive and susceptible to infection.
Đường hô hấp trên
Đường hô hấp trên
Subjects susceptible to upper respiratory tract infections include children, the elderly, leukemia patients, immunocompromised patients... Currently, in the changing seasons, many parents are still negligent and subjective with the disease because they think that this is a simple disease, not worrisome. However, upper respiratory tract infections in children not only stop at problems such as bronchitis and pneumonia, but more dangerously respiratory failure and death if not treated properly and promptly.

2. Causes of upper respiratory tract infections in children

Upper respiratory tract infections can be caused by viruses, bacteria, dust, toxic gases, molds... The disease usually starts with a virus before, then a bacterial superinfection causes a sore throat and infection. upper respiratory tract infection. In addition, there are still a number of other risk factors that increase the possibility of infection of viruses and bacteria such as:
Age and health status of children: young children, especially infants and children under 1 year old, premature babies, children with malnutrition, rickets or immunocompromised children.
Living environment: Children living in a humid environment, poor hygiene conditions, children lying in an air-conditioned room with low temperature, causing the nose and throat to dry, leading to inflammation, the risk of upper respiratory infections in children will increase. higher when the weather changes.
tiêm lao cho bé sinh non
Trẻ sinh non thuộc nhóm đối tượng nguy cơ cao mắc bệnh viêm đường hô hấp

3. Note when taking care of children at the change of season

For a newborn baby in the first month, the child does not have a good resistance, mothers and caregivers should avoid contact with the baby if they are sick or must wash their hands when taking care of the baby, should wear a mask. page if you have a cold.
Babies born by cesarean section are often prone to wheezing due to viscous sputum remaining in the respiratory tract, mothers should not be too worried and do not arbitrarily give them antibiotics early, so take the child to a medical center for examination and treatment. treatment as prescribed by the doctor. A study in the US showed that babies who used antibiotics before 1 year of age had a higher risk of developing asthma than babies who took antibiotics after 1 year of age.
Some children cry at night, stop breastfeeding simply because of stuffy nose, mother needs to clear the baby's nose by sucking the nose and let the baby lie with his head high, gently patting his back to help him cough and vomit sputum. Parents should note, cough is a good reflex to protect the child's body, protect the child's lungs, so do not be too worried and arbitrarily give the child cough suppressant, especially for children under 1 year old. year old.
Trẻ uống thuốc
Tuyệt đối không tự ý cho trẻ uống thuốc khi chưa có sự tư vấn của bác sĩ

4. Warning symptoms of upper respiratory tract infection in children

The most common symptom is fever, the first and most important sign of a common upper respiratory infection. Children have high fever, body temperature rises 39-40 degrees Celsius. Runny nose and runny nose, a lot of fluid, clear, thin, no pus and no bad smell. Some children have frequent runny noses in one or both of them. In some children with chronic BV caused by bacilli, the mucus discharge from the nose is often green. Cough in episodes or dry cough, cough with phlegm. Shortness of breath is a non-specific symptom of upper respiratory tract infection, often a symptom of airway inflammation. Shortness of breath is very rare, but when it does, it is often a sign of serious illness, the baby must sneeze, wheeze... After an acute episode, if not treated well, it can easily turn into chronic inflammation, with symptoms usually including: cough, sore throat, swallowing, feeling stuck in the throat, stuffy nose due to hypertrophy of the nasal stub. Headache (common in sinusitis). Children with conjunctivitis, photophobia, red eyes, pain, itching and watery eyes. Bad breath. Muscle pain, fatigue. Abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea.
Trẻ ho
Trẻ xuất hiện triệu chứng ho thành cơn

5. Treatment and care of children with upper respiratory tract infections

To treat inflammatory diseases of the upper respiratory tract in children, it is first necessary to find the cause. The disease is mostly caused by viruses, so there is no need for antibiotics, only symptomatic treatment. At the same time:
Use physiological saline nasal drops to clear the baby's nose before feeding and feeding. It is necessary to build children a reasonable diet for the body to self-regulate, not antibiotics. Let children eat normally, avoid abstinence, increase green vegetables and fruit juices. Take your child to a medical facility as soon as serious signs appear such as: high fever, persistent cough, prolonged vomiting, severe diarrhea or signs of complications in the ears, lungs, digestion, eyes.. Always equip children with masks when going out. Avoid taking your children to crowded places. Limit children going out on the days of changing seasons, create a habit of drinking warm water in the early morning after waking up so that the throat is not dry. Keep the baby's sleeping area clean, keep the baby warm. Fully vaccinated according to the vaccination schedule.
Nước muối sinh lý
Sử dụng nước muối sinh lý làm thông mũi cho bé
In addition, parents should also add some supporting foods containing lysine, essential micro-minerals and vitamins such as zinc, chromium, selenium, B vitamins,... to help fully meet their needs. requirements for nutrients and at the same time support the immune system, enhance resistance, reduce the risk of upper respiratory tract infections, bronchitis, flu.
Please regularly visit Vinmec.com website and update useful information to take care of your baby and family.

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