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Upper respiratory tract infection in children and how to avoid illness in the cold season

The article was written by Doctor Le Tuyet Nga - Specialist I - Pediatric Center - Vinmec Times City International Hospital
The World Health Organization (WHO) warns about upper respiratory tract infections. According to statistics, on average, a child under 5 years old can get an upper respiratory infection 4-6 times in a year, which makes the child's health decline, physical and intellectual retardation.

1. What is an upper respiratory infection?

The upper respiratory tract is counted from the nose to the larynx, including the nose, pharynx and larynx. When pathogens enter, the symptoms of a cold will appear, if not treated promptly, it can lead to rhinitis, pharyngitis, VA, tonsillitis, laryngitis, sinusitis, and laryngitis. otitis media ... These diseases are collectively known as upper respiratory tract infections .

2. Causes of upper respiratory tract infections in children

Upper respiratory tract infections can be caused by viruses, bacteria, dust, toxic gases, molds... The disease usually starts with a virus before, then a bacterial superinfection causes a sore throat and infection. upper respiratory tract infection. In addition, there are still a number of other risk factors that increase the possibility of infection of viruses and bacteria such as:
Age and health status of children: Young children, especially infants and children under 1 year old, premature babies, children with malnutrition, rickets or immunocompromised children. Living environment: Children living in a humid environment, poor hygiene conditions, children in an air-conditioned room with low temperature, causing dryness of the nose and throat leading to inflammation, the risk of upper respiratory infections in children will be increased. higher when the weather changes.
Trẻ 4 tháng tuổi sinh non ngày càng bú ít có đáng lo?
Trẻ sinh non có thể trạng sức khỏe kém có thể là nguyên nhân gây viêm đường hô hấp trên

3. Warning symptoms of upper respiratory tract infection in children


The most common symptom is fever : The first and most important sign of an upper respiratory infection is often. Children have high fever, body temperature rises 39-40 degrees Celsius. Runny nose and runny nose: The fluid is abundant, clear, dilute, no pus and no bad smell. Some children have frequent runny noses on one or both sides of their nose. In some children with chronic BV caused by bacilli, the mucus discharge from the nose is often green. Cough in episodes or dry cough, cough with phlegm. Shortness of breath is a nonspecific symptom of upper respiratory tract infection, often a symptom of respiratory tract infection. Shortness of breath is very rare, but when it does, it is often a sign of serious illness, the baby must sneeze, wheeze... After an acute episode, if not treated well, it can easily turn to chronic inflammation, with symptoms usually cough, sore throat, swallowing, feeling stuck in the throat, stuffy nose due to hypertrophy of the nasal stub. Headache (common in sinusitis) Children with conjunctivitis, photophobia, red eyes, pain, itching and watering of eyes Bad breath Muscle pain, fatigue Abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea Parents need What support measures should be taken to help children avoid illness, especially when it's cold?

4. Note when taking care of children in the cold season


Parents need to take the following supportive measures to help their baby recover quickly and prevent the risk of recurrence:
Room arrangement: The baby's room needs to be cleaned and tidy. Note when using the air conditioner: Adjust the temperature to about 25 - 26 degrees Celsius and remember to turn off the air conditioner 30 minutes before the baby leaves the room so that the baby's body does not have a sudden temperature difference. One way to check the room temperature to see if it's right for your baby is to feel the back of her neck and back. If the baby is not sweating and sleeping well, the room temperature is appropriate. Nutrition: Mothers need to provide adequate nutrition for their children by feeding them enough meals during the day, supplementing with foods that help strengthen vitamins, DHA, and are easy to digest. If the baby has entered the weaning stage, the mother should balance the menu to ensure adequate nutrients. Nose care: Mothers should clean their nose to help clear the baby's airways with products derived from deep sea water. Mothers should not use oral liquids such as garlic and onion juice to drop into the child's nose because it can cause burns to the nasal mucosa, making respiratory infections worse. For a newborn baby in the first month, the child does not have a good resistance, mothers and caregivers should avoid contact with the baby if they are sick or must wash their hands when taking care of the baby, should wear a mask. page if you have a cold.
Babies born by cesarean section are often prone to wheezing due to viscous sputum remaining in the respiratory tract, mothers should not be too worried and do not arbitrarily give their baby antibiotics early, so take the child to a medical center to have the sputum aspirated. and treatment as prescribed by the doctor.
A study in the US showed that babies who used antibiotics before 1 year of age had a higher risk of developing asthma than babies who used antibiotics after 1 year of age.
Trẻ ăn dặm
Cha mẹ nên hăm sóc trẻ vào mùa lạnh với chế độ dinh dưỡng hợp lý
Some children cry at night, stop breastfeeding simply because of a stuffy nose, the mother needs to clear the baby's nose by sucking the nose and letting the baby lie down with his head high, gently patting his back to help the child cough and vomit sputum. Parents should note, cough is a good reflex to protect the child's body, protect the child's lungs, so do not be too worried and arbitrarily give the child cough suppressant, especially for children under 1 year old. year old.
Need to add enough nutrients for the baby, so when the child is sick, the parents should continue to feed the child, breastfeed normally Eat small meals, feed them little by little to meet their nutritional needs. Give them lots of green vegetables and fruits to supplement fiber and vitamins. Drink lots of water, orange juice and fruit juice to increase resistance Feed your child nutritious but easy to eat and digest foods such as porridge, soups, and soft cooked foods Add water: Water is very important. Parents need to add enough water to help their baby's body stay healthy. Create a habit of drinking warm water early in the morning after waking up so that the baby's throat doesn't get dry Keep the baby's body warm when the weather is cold, clean If the child has a fever, keep the child in a cool room, regularly wipe the forehead, armpit, groin area with warm water If the child has a high fever above 38.5 Give your child a fever-reducing medication specifically designed for children in the correct dose. Wash your child's nose with physiological saline before feeding, feeding and going to bed Elevate the child's pillow when sleeping to make it easier for the child to breathe Always wear a mask Pages for children every time they go out Limit bringing children to crowded places Limit letting children go out on the days of changing seasons Have your children fully vaccinated according to the schedule to prevent diseases To treat diseases To treat upper respiratory tract infections in children, first of all, it is necessary to find the cause. The disease is mostly caused by viruses, so antibiotics are not needed, only symptomatic treatment is needed.

Take the child to a medical facility as soon as serious signs appear such as: high fever, persistent cough, prolonged vomiting, severe diarrhea or signs of complications in the ears, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, eyes ...
Pediatrics department at Vinmec International General Hospital is the address for receiving and examining diseases that infants and young children are susceptible to: viral fever, bacterial fever, otitis media, pneumonia in children,.... With modern equipment, sterile space, minimizing the impact as well as the risk of disease spread. Along with that is the dedication from the doctors with professional experience with pediatric patients, making the examination no longer a concern of the parents.

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