Prevention of preeclampsia during pregnancy

Professional consultation article by Doctor Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Vinmec Hai Phong International General Hospital.

Preeclampsia is a systemic pregnancy syndrome caused by pregnancy, which can lead to many serious and even life-threatening consequences for both the mother and the fetus.

1. What is preeclampsia?

Preeclampsia is a systemic pregnancy syndrome caused by pregnancy from the 20th week of pregnancy, characterized by three symptoms: hypertension, proteinuria and edema.
Hypertension: The systolic blood pressure value ≥ 140 mmHg and/or the systolic blood pressure value ≥ 90 mmHg at the 20th week of pregnancy, in pregnant women with previously normal blood pressure (must be measured. at rest, measure twice at least 4 hours apart). In case the systolic blood pressure value increases by more than 30 mmHg or the diastolic blood pressure value increases by more than 15 mmHg compared to the pre-pregnancy blood pressure value, it should be monitored, because preeclampsia may occur. Proteinuria: positive result when protein level is above 0.5 g/L with random urine sample; Or for the most accurate test results, take a 24-hour urine sample, positive results when the amount of protein is greater than 0.3 g/L/24h. Edema: generalized edema, edema from waking up in the morning, elevating the legs does not stop the edema, in severe cases may appear multi-membrane effusion, cerebral edema. Preeclampsia can have serious consequences for both the mother and the unborn baby. If not treated in time, pre-eclampsia can cause multi-organ damage (brain, kidney, liver) of pregnant women, more seriously, when progressing to eclampsia, the life of both mother and fetus are all threatened.
In fact, most women with preeclampsia still give birth to healthy babies.

Trên thực tế, đa số thai phụ bị tiền sản giật vẫn sinh ra những em bé khỏe mạnh.

2. How to prevent preeclampsia?

Currently, the cause of preeclampsia is still unclear and controversial, so unfortunately, there is currently no absolute way to prevent preeclampsia.

Research is actively finding ways to prevent preeclampsia. One study found that pregnant women consuming foods fortified with the amino acid L-arginine and antioxidant vitamins may reduce the risk of preeclampsia in high-risk women. Another study found that pregnant women who were overweight or obese who gained no more than 15 pounds of body weight (~6.8 kg) faced a lower risk of preeclampsia. Another study found that aspirin was effective in protecting against preeclampsia in women with risk factors.

Để làm giảm áp lực máu, bác sĩ có thể hướng dẫn thai phụ một số phương pháp, như nằm nghiêng bên trái khi nghỉ ngơi

Although it is not possible to completely prevent preeclampsia, but always keep in mind, pregnancy management is extremely important. Besides, always listen to your body, early detect abnormal signs for timely examination and appropriate treatment. Pregnant women can refer to the following guidelines to reduce the risk of preeclampsia:
Routine antenatal check-ups: the best way to stay healthy during pregnancy is to practice pregnancy management , periodical antenatal check-up, through which specialists can check blood pressure, blood tests, proteinuria levels, fetal development in the womb, ... and many other factors, in order to develop early show symptoms and signs not only of preeclampsia, but also other diseases if any, in order to have timely treatment methods to avoid unfortunate consequences. Self-monitoring of weight and blood pressure: if you have a history of high blood pressure before becoming pregnant, tell your specialist right away at your first visit, so that he or she can guide you on how to self-monitor your weight. and blood pressure between routine visits, record the results and report back to your doctor at the next visit. Lowering blood pressure: to reduce blood pressure, the doctor may instruct pregnant women in a number of methods, such as lying on the left side when resting, or appointing calcium supplements, or appointing aspirin. .. Besides, pregnant women also need to follow a balanced diet. It is a diet with enough nutrients, a balance of nutritional components, lots of green vegetables, fruits, and low salt (eating a lot of salt is closely related to hypertension). Customers can refer to the comprehensive maternity care program at Vinmec International General Hospital with a route of scientific examination for pregnant mothers before - during - after birth with experienced doctors in the field of pregnancy. Obstetrics and Gynecology, ensuring close monitoring helps women have a healthy pregnancy and safe labor.

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