The role of the hormone Glucagon in regulating blood sugar (glucose) levels

The article was professionally consulted with General Internal Medicine - Department of Examination & Internal Medicine - Vinmec Nha Trang International General Hospital.
The pancreas secretes insulin and glucagon, both of which play important roles in regulating the body's blood sugar levels. If the levels of one or two hormones are out of the normal range, the blood sugar level will immediately fluctuate and this is not good for your body at all.

1. Blood sugar provides active energy for the body

When we eat, the body converts carbohydrates from food into glucose. It is an essential source of energy to maintain the body's daily activities. At each time of day, blood sugar levels will change continuously. Thanks to the two hormones insulin and glucagon secreted from the pancreas, blood sugar is always maintained at a healthy level for the body.
These two hormones work in balance, if the concentration of either hormone is out of range, blood sugar can rise or fall.
The glycemic index is a measure of how efficiently the body uses glucose. It is measured in milligrams per decilitre (mg/dl). Ideal blood sugar levels are as follows:
Before breakfast: glycemic index <100 mg/dl for healthy people and 70 - 130 mg/dl for people with diabetes Two hours after eating : glycemic index <140 mg/dl for healthy people. People with diabetes should not be below 180 mg/dl.

2. Regulate blood sugar in the body

Insulin and glucagon act in opposition to each other, like yin and yang in maintaining blood sugar. As mentioned above, these two hormones help balance blood sugar levels, keeping blood sugar within the range required by the body. If the levels of either hormone are outside of the normal range, blood sugar can rise or fall.
The islets of Langerhans are the functional units of the pancreas, with alpha cells that produce glucagon, and beta cells that synthesize and secrete insulin.
Most cells cannot absorb glucose from the blood on their own. Therefore, insulin is likened to the key that allows the cell to "open the door" to receive glucose.
When blood sugar is too high, the pancreas secretes more insulin, and conversely, when blood sugar drops, the pancreas releases more of the hormone glucagon to bring blood sugar back to normal.
Hormon glucagon
Khi lượng đường huyết giảm, tuyến tuỵ sẽ giải phóng nhiều hormon glucagon hơn để đưa đường huyết trở lại bình thường

3. The role of Glucagon and Insulin hormones in regulating blood sugar (Glucose) levels

3.1. The role of the hormone glucagon: The hormone glucagon is a protein produced in the pancreas when blood sugar is too low. This is a counterweight to insulin.
About four to six hours after eating, blood sugar will gradually decrease. This triggers the production of glucagon in the pancreas. When the pancreas secretes glucagon, the body suppresses insulin production.
When blood sugar levels are too low, the pancreas will secrete glucagon. The hormone glucagon has the effect of breaking down glycogen stored in the liver to convert them into glucose and put it into the blood, so that the amount of glucose in the body does not never drops too low and the cell's function is still guaranteed.
3.2. The role of the hormone insulin: The body converts energy from carbohydrates into glucose. The body's cells need glucose for energy, but most cells cannot use glucose directly.
Just like glucagon, insulin is an important hormone produced by cells in the pancreas.
During digestion, insulin acts as a key that allows glucose to enter the cells. Insulin binds to receptors on cells throughout the body, which recognize the signal and open channels that allow glucose to enter.
When the body produces insulin, glucagon is inhibited. Insulin stimulates cells throughout the body to absorb glucose from the blood. The cells then use glucose for energy.
To fuel the body between meals, excess glucose is stored in liver and muscle cells as glycogen. When glucose is converted to energy or stored in the liver and muscles, blood glucose levels decrease. Thus, the same is produced by cells in the pancreas, but insulin and glucagon act in opposite directions in the regulation of blood sugar. Both of these hormones work synchronously and rhythmically to ensure that blood sugar in the body does not rise too high and does not fall too low, ensuring energy supply for the body.

4. How to maintain blood sugar balance in the body

Hormon glucagon
Thường xuyên theo dõi đường huyết là chỉ định bắt buộc dành cho những người có nguy cơ cao bị tiểu đường và người bị tiểu đường
Regular blood sugar monitoring is a mandatory indication for people at high risk of diabetes and people with diabetes. Strictly follow the doctor's instructions when taking medication to avoid unwanted side effects. : take the medicine regularly, follow the treatment schedule of the doctor, absolutely do not change the dosage without the consent of the doctor. Build and implement a reasonable and balanced diet. High-sugar foods are absorbed by the body quite quickly, which means that blood sugar levels will rise quickly but at the same time decrease quickly Choosing foods with low GI helps patients with diabetes control blood sugar safely Exercising with the right choice of exercise form and maintaining it regularly is also one of the things people with diabetes need to do. Note that you need to check your blood sugar, blood pressure, and heart rate before exercising. Always keep an optimistic and relaxed spirit... Vinmec International General Hospital now has a package of screening tests for diabetes and dyslipidemia. performed by a team of highly qualified and experienced doctors and with the support of modern technological equipment, will help patients accurately detect diabetes and dyslipidemia at an early stage, thereby appropriate treatment regimen.

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