What is measles?
The article was professionally consulted by Master, Doctor Nguyen Thi Nhat - Infectious Disease Specialist - Department of Medical Examination & Internal Medicine - Vinmec Hai Phong International General Hospital
With the increasing number of measles infections, especially in young children, please refer to the following article for the necessary understanding in monitoring, early detection and proper care for children. if your child has measles.
1. What is measles? How is the disease transmitted?
Measles is an acute infectious disease caused by the Paramyxoviridae virus. Airborne diseases often appear in winter - spring, are common in children, but also appear in adults, the possibility of outbreaks is very high.
2. Who is susceptible to measles?
Everyone who is not immune to measles is at risk, but the disease is more common in children. The severity of the disease is not the same for each person, depending on the resistance of each individual.
After contracting measles, the patient will have sustained immunity to the disease.
3. Symptoms of measles?
When you have measles, you can generalize the manifestations of measles as: fever, rash, cough, conjunctivitis (red eyes), runny nose.
Measles has a typical incubation period of 12-14 days, which can last up to 21 days. The disease can be transmitted from 1 day before the onset of the prodromal phase (about 4 days before the rash appears) to 4 days after the appearance of the rash, at least after the second day of the rash.
At the onset of measles, patients often present: high fever, conjunctivitis, upper respiratory tract inflammation, acute laryngitis, Koplik granules may appear. After 3-4 days of fever, a maculopapular, pinkish rash begins to appear in order from behind the ears, forehead, down the chest, back, then down to the thighs and feet. When the rash disappears, it also disappears in the above order, the rash scabs leaving dark spots on the skin.
4. How should someone with measles be cared for?
When sick with measles, the patient should be cared for as follows:
Need to isolate the patient, have the patient wear a medical mask, avoid the patient coming into contact with many people. The patient should rest in a well-ventilated, well-lit room (avoid strong light as the patient may be photophobia). The chamber should be cleaned regularly. Get enough sleep, get plenty of rest. Keep the body warm enough, clean the body, have good oral hygiene, absolutely do not abstain from water and wind. Instill eyes and nose with 0.9% physiological saline solution or use specialized eye drops, 3-4 times a day. Pay attention to the diet to improve the condition of the patient. The patient should be given foods that are easy to digest and taken in several meals. Add foods rich in Vitamins (especially foods rich in Vitamin A). For breastfed children, continue to feed babies breast milk, when diarrhea the child needs to be fed more. Drink a lot of water and fruit juice, it is best to use Oresol to ensure enough water - electrolytes. Apply a warm compress when the fever is mild, if the fever is higher than 38.5oC, use antipyretic drugs as prescribed by the doctor. Absolutely do not arbitrarily use any medicine for the patient, especially antibiotics. Caregivers, people who come into contact with patients need to wear medical masks, wash their hands before and after contact with sick people. When severe signs of the disease appear (especially in children), it is necessary to immediately take them to a medical facility for examination and treatment: fatigue, lethargy, or irritability, poor or stopped feeding, high fever, cough a lot, breathing fast, shortness of breath... the patient still has a fever when the rash is gone.
5. How to prevent measles?
Measles is an acute infectious disease caused by a virus, so measles vaccination is the first line of prevention.
In addition, measures should be taken to prevent measles in general:
People with measles should be isolated, and at the same time, avoid large gatherings during epidemics. Patients who have contact with patients need to wear medical masks. Wash hands before and after contact with sick people to prevent the spread of disease. Practice good environmental hygiene and personal hygiene. When there are signs of measles, it is necessary to take the patient to the nearest medical facility for examination and treatment, to avoid dangerous complications. For those who have not had measles, measles vaccination is essential to prevent the disease. At Vinmec, we always provide customers with measles vaccination service to support health protection as well as reduce disease outbreaks.
Children will be examined by pediatricians - vaccines, fully screened for physical and health problems, advised on preventive vaccines and injection regimens, how to monitor and care Before vaccination, children are vaccinated according to the latest recommendations of the Ministry of Health & World Health Organization to ensure the best effectiveness and safety for children. A team of experienced and professional pediatric doctors and nurses, understand children's psychology and apply effective pain relief methods for children during the vaccination process. 100% of vaccinated children were monitored for 30 minutes after vaccination and reassessed before leaving. Undertake medical supervision before, during and after vaccination at Vinmec Health System and always have an emergency team ready to coordinate with the vaccination department to handle cases of anaphylaxis, respiratory failure - circulatory arrest, ensuring Ensure timely and correct handling when incidents occur. The vaccination room is airy, with a play area, helping children feel comfortable as if they are walking and have a good mentality before and after vaccination. Vaccines are imported and stored in a modern cold storage system, with a cold chain that meets GSP standards, keeping vaccines in the best conditions to ensure quality. Parents will receive a reminder message before the vaccination date and their child's vaccination information will be synchronized with the National Immunization Information System.
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Reference source: Department of Preventive Medicine - Ministry of Health