How to detect bladder cancer early?
1. Bladder Structure
The urinary tract epithelium is a layer of tissue lining the lumen of the urethra, bladder, ureters, prostate, and kidneys. Cancer that begins in the epithelial lining of the bladder is much more common than in other sites such as the urethra, ureters, prostate, or kidney.
2. Signs and symptoms of bladder cancer
Blood in the urine (slightly rusty to bright red). Urinate frequently. Pain when urinating. Lower back pain. Examination Procedure
Before doing some tests. The patient should be thoroughly examined, asked about habits, medical history and past treatments. Vaginal or rectal examination. The doctor inserts a lubricated, gloved finger into the vagina and rectum to feel for lumps. Urinalysis: to check the color of urine and components such as sugar, protein, red blood cells and white blood cells. Urine cytology: a laboratory test in which a urine sample is examined under a microscope for abnormal cells.
3. 3 types of cancer that start in the urinary tract epithelial cells of the bladder
Transitional cell cancers are classified as low or high malignancy :
- Low malignancy transition cell carcinomas often recur (come back) after treatment, but rarely spread into the muscle layer. bladder or to other parts of the body.
- High-grade transitional cell cancer also often comes back (come back) after treatment and often spreads into the muscle layer of the bladder, to other parts of the body, and to the lymph nodes. Almost all bladder cancer deaths fall into this group
Squamous cell carcinoma: Cancer that forms from squamous cells (thin, flat cells that line the bladder wall). Cancer can form after a long period of cystitis.
Adenocarcinoma : Cancer that starts in the glandular cells. Glandular cells from the epithelial layer of the bladder produce
4. Bladder Cancer Risk
5. The following tests can help detect bladder cancer early
Test to check for blood in a urine sample by looking at it under a microscope or using a special test strip. This test should be repeated from time to time.
If there are red blood cells in the urine, the patient should have a cystoscopy and some other tests such as magnetic resonance imaging, CT/Scan scan...
Cystoscopy: is a way to look at inside the bladder and urethra to check for abnormalities. A cystoscope (a thin, lighted tube) is inserted through the urethra into the bladder. Tissue samples may be taken for biopsies.
This test may give inaccurate results such as false positives when there appear to be abnormal cells even though there is no cancer. False-positive test results can be worrisome and are often followed up with a variety of other tests (such as cystoscopy or other invasive procedures). False-positive results usually occur when there is blood in the urine but are caused by conditions other than cancer.
This test may give inaccurate results such as false negatives: when no abnormal cells are seen but bladder cancer is indeed missed. A person who receives a false-negative test result may have delayed or delayed treatment even if symptoms are present.
Biopsy: for bladder cancer is usually done during cystoscopy. It is possible to remove the entire tumor during a biopsy.
Once cancer is confirmed, several other techniques are done to find out if cancer cells have spread in the bladder or to other parts of the body. Patients will be taken CT/Scan, magnetic resonance, or PET/CT, bone scan ..
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