Symptoms of knee bone cancer

This is an automatically translated article.

Knee bone cancer is an uncontrolled growth of bone cells in the knee area. Although rare, bone cancer often progresses silently, causing the disease to be detected at a late stage. Recognizing the signs of knee cancer is important for patients to be diagnosed and treated promptly.

1. Types of bone cancer

Bone cancer occurs when bone cells grow abnormally, out of control, destroying normal bone tissue.
Not all bone tumors are bone cancers, but benign bone tumors are the majority. Benign osteoma, although non-invasive, does not metastasize to other organs of the body, but it can still weaken bones and lead to fractures. Some common types of benign bone tumors are osteochondromas. (Osteochondroma), Giant cell tumor, Osteoid osteoma, Osteoblastoma, Enchondroma.
Bone cancer includes two main types: primary bone cancer and secondary bone cancer.
1.1. Primary bone cancer Primary bone cancer (bone sarcoma) is a malignant tumor that originates in the body's skeletal system. The cause of primary bone cancer is still being studied, but genes may be involved.
The most common types of primary bone cancer are:
Osteosarcoma : Osteosarcoma usually manifests around the knees and arms. The most common ages of osteosarcoma are adolescents and young adults. Adults with Paget's disease of bone are also at risk for osteosarcoma. Ewing's sarcoma: The disease usually occurs between the ages of 5-20. Common sites of Ewing's sarcoma are the ribs, pelvis, legs, and arms. Sometimes the disease starts in the soft tissue around the bone. Chondrosarcoma: Chondrosarcoma comes from cartilage cells, patients with Chondrosarcoma are usually between the ages of 40-70. The hips, pelvis, legs, arms, and shoulders are common sites of the disease. It should be emphasized that multiple myeloma is not a primary bone cancer, but rather a disease of the bone marrow.
1.2. Secondary bone cancer Besides primary bone cancer, which is cancer that originates in the bones, secondary bone cancer is bone damage caused by cancer in other organs that has spread to, for example: metastatic breast cancer bone, bone metastatic lung cancer, bone metastatic prostate cancer,...

2. Causes and risk factors for knee bone cancer

The cause of bone cancer in general and knee bone cancer in particular is due to the abnormal division of bone-forming cells, leading to the formation of malignant bone lesions. As mentioned above, genetic factors may play a role in predisposing to primary bone cancer of the knee. Secondary knee injuries can be caused by metastases from the primary cancer to other organs.
In addition, it is found that knee bone cancer may be associated with a number of risk factors such as:
History of cancer treatment: The use of chemotherapy methods, radiation therapy, stem cell transplantation ... to treat cancer in the past that increases the risk of bone cancer, including cancer of the knee bone. Li-Fraumeni syndrome, retinoblastoma: These conditions increase the risk of bone cancer. Paget's disease of bone: Although Paget's disease of bone is a benign condition, it can be a risk factor for the disease to progress and become bone cancer. Young people: Young people have a higher risk of developing bone cancer. Patients with bone cancer have an average age of 20 years.

3. Symptoms of knee bone cancer

Knee cancer if detected and treated early, up to 80% of patients live more than 5 years. However, knee bone cancer can develop silently, by the time symptoms appear, the disease may have spread to other organs. The disease can be discovered by accident when the patient has a knee injury, or some other problem that the patient is assigned to have a knee X-ray. Some of the possible symptoms of knee bone cancer are:
3.1. Knee bone pain Knee pain is the most common sign of knee bone cancer, bone tumor in the knee area makes patients feel pain and discomfort. Initially, the pain is usually mild, intermittent and increases when the patient moves the knee joint, then the frequency of pain increases, the pain level also increases and increases much at night, poorly responds to other treatments. common pain relievers. This makes the patient limited movement, affecting daily life.
It should be emphasized that trauma is not the cause of bone cancer, however, the disease can be detected after a minor injury to the knee causes the patient to be hospitalized and undergo X-ray or computed tomography.
3.2. Knee swelling Patients with knee bone cancer may present with swelling in the knee area around the bone. This symptom can be confused with benign bone and joint diseases such as: Arthritis, osteoarthritis,...
3.3. Restriction of movement Knee cancer with bone loss, swelling and pain in the knee area can cause patients to limit movement of the knee joint. Patients may limp to avoid pain, or due to structural abnormalities of the knee bones. Some patients with knee bone cancer also have muscle atrophy due to limited mobility.
3.4. Pathological fracture Patients with fractures after a slight impact on the knee may be a manifestation of pathological fractures, including cancer of the knee bone. Bone cancer causes bone tissue to become weaker, reduce bearing capacity, and even a minor injury can cause a fracture.
3.5. Systemic symptoms Knee cancer or cancer in general often makes patients tired and lose weight. Some patients with knee bone cancer have fever or night sweats.
In addition, patients may experience some other systemic symptoms due to metastasis of knee bone cancer to other organs (most commonly lung metastasis).

4. Subclinical diagnosis of knee bone cancer

After a clinical examination and taking a medical history, the patient will be assigned the necessary tests to diagnose knee bone cancer.
4.1. Diagnostic imaging Imaging techniques that allow survey and assessment of bone lesions include:
X-ray: This technique shows the image of the knee bone tumor and its size. Computed tomography (CT Scan): Also uses X-rays like X-rays, but the image of bone tumors on computed tomography will be more detailed and clear, helping to assess the size and main tumor characteristics. more precise. In addition, patients with bone cancer of the knee may be prescribed a full-body computed tomography scan to evaluate the stage of the primary bone cancer, or find the primary cancer that has spread to the knee bone. Magnetic Resonance (MRI): Magnetic resonance uses the properties of a magnetic field to survey the knee bones as well as the soft tissues and tissues around the bones. PET Scan: This technique helps detect cancer cells more quickly and accurately. Bone scan: A bone scan is a technique of injecting radiation into a vein, then using a scanner to detect malignant bone tissue. Your doctor may also do blood tests to look for two enzymes that could be signs of blood cancer. 4.2. Pathology The diagnostic criterion for cancer is generally histopathology. The doctor will conduct a biopsy of the bone tumor in the knee area and send it to the pathologist to review the specimen from the macroscopic and microscopic perspective, thereby making a definitive diagnosis whether the bone tumor is benign. or malignant, primary or secondary bone cancer,...

5. Treatment of knee bone cancer

The best cancer treatment should have consensus, consensus after multi-specialty consultation between plastic surgeons, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, palliative care, psychologist, .. Treatment methods will be discussed and selected depending on the pathological characteristics of knee bone cancer, stage of disease, age and condition of the patient as well as comorbidities (if any),... Treatment of bone cancer at locally localized stage and distant metastatic stage is completely different.
Common treatments for bone cancer include:
5.1. Surgery Conservative surgery: The doctor will perform surgery to remove the malignant bone tumor but limit the impact on nearby tissues such as tendons, muscles or surrounding soft tissue. The patient may be assigned a knee replacement to support mobility, the defective position of the pathological bone in the knee can be replaced by a metal implant, Amputation: If the knee bone tumor is If it is large in size or touches nerves and blood vessels, amputation indications can be set out and replaced with prosthetics. 5.2. Radiation therapy Radiation therapy may be used along with surgery to destroy cancer cells and shrink bone tumors.
5.3. Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy is a method of using chemical drugs to kill cancer cells. Depending on the stage of knee bone cancer, chemotherapy may be indicated preoperatively / postoperatively, or indicated for distant metastatic cancer. Targeted therapy: Targeted therapy also uses drugs to treat cancer, but it targets certain characteristics (genes, proteins), or other changes in cancer cells. letters. In summary, knee bone cancer in particular and bone cancer in general is not a common malignancy with many different diseases. The disease often has a late onset of symptoms, making treatment more difficult and complicated. Therefore, recognizing the early signs of knee bone cancer is important for timely diagnosis and effective treatment.

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This article is written for readers from Sài Gòn, Hà Nội, Hồ Chí Minh, Phú Quốc, Nha Trang, Hạ Long, Hải Phòng, Đà Nẵng.


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