Overview of pulmonary valve stenosis in children

The article was consulted with Specialist Doctor of Pediatrics - Neonatology - Department of Pediatrics - Neonatology - Vinmec Hai Phong International General Hospital.

Pulmonary stenosis is quite common in congenital heart diseases in children, so we need to equip ourselves with the knowledge to prevent and treat the disease most effectively in children.

1. What is pulmonary valve stenosis?

What is pulmonary valve stenosis? Pulmonary stenosis is a congenital defect that blocks or distorts the outflow of blood from the right ventricle to the pulmonary and pulmonary arteries. These lesions can appear in the valve, pulmonary artery trunk, or branches etc...
This is a congenital heart quite common in congenital heart diseases in children but only a few are known. treated and recovered, the rest due to their parents' lack of understanding as well as their limited economic ability, they all suffered from complications of the disease or died.

2. Causes of pulmonary valve stenosis in children

2.1 Congenital causes

Certain congenital heart abnormalities in infants can cause pulmonary stenosis.
Pulmonary stenosis is rarely due to congenital causes such as absence of the valve leaflet, hypoplasia or perforation of the pulmonary valve leaflet. However, it is still not known what causes the abnormal development of the valves.

di truyền bệnh tim mạch
Some heart diseases can cause pulmonary valve stenosis

2.2 Secondary causes

Usually, children with heart problems often have pulmonary stenosis such as mitral stenosis, left atrial mucinous tumor causing pulmonary hypertension due to infective endocarditis. If the child has rheumatic heart disease, it can also cause more narrowing of the pulmonary valve. Children with Marfan syndrome due to pulmonary artery dilation can also lead to pulmonary stenosis.

3. Symptoms of pulmonary valve stenosis

There are many cases of children born with mild pulmonary valve stenosis but no symptoms and children can completely live with this disease without worrying too much about their health. In these children, we can tell by listening to the heart, we will see a heart murmur.
In moderate or severe degree, symptoms of pulmonary valve stenosis in children and adults will appear with exertion, including:
Chest tightness Fainting Fatigue Slow weight gain, growth retardation in children with the disease severe Shortness of breath, especially dyspnea on exertion Distension of the abdomen

4. Testing and Diagnosis

Pulmonary stenosis is sometimes not detected until the patient is clinically evident. Some laboratory tests are often used to diagnose pulmonary valve stenosis in children such as:
Electrocardiogram Echocardiogram Cardiac catheterization

5. Treatment of pulmonary valve stenosis

For some mild cases of pulmonary stenosis, no treatment is needed, just regular checkups. However, if the condition is more severe, balloon valve repair or heart surgery may be necessary.
The decision to perform valve repair or heart surgery depends on the extent to which the pulmonary valve is narrowed. Pulmonary stenosis is classified into three grades: mild, moderate, or severe, depending on the measurement of the pressure difference between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery.

5.1 Ball valve repair

This method is often chosen to apply to cases of pulmonary valve stenosis in children. The most common side effects of balloon valve repair are valve regurgitation, risk of blood clots, infection, or bleeding.

5.2 Open heart surgery

This method is often used for patients with pulmonary stenosis that occurs above the valve or below the valve. During surgery, your doctor will repair your pulmonary valve to allow blood to pass more easily. In some cases, doctors can replace the pulmonary valve with an artificial valve. This approach is applicable to patients with pulmonary stenosis who have congenital heart defects and they can be repaired at the time of surgery.

Có phải mọi dị tật tim bẩm sinh đều phải phẫu thuật?
Open heart surgery is one of the treatment methods for the disease

5.3 Prophylactic antibiotics

People with heart valve problems are advised to take antibiotics before certain dental and surgical procedures, to prevent bacteria from infecting the inner lining of the heart.

5.4 Lifestyle changes for people with pulmonary valve disease

The maintenance of a reasonable diet plays a decisive role in the effectiveness of the treatment of cardiovascular disease in general and valvular stenosis in particular. Therefore, it is necessary to pay attention to the child's daily diet such as:
Eat light meals to avoid increasing the burden on the heart. Eat lots of green vegetables, fruits, heart-healthy foods. Do not use stimulants such as coffee in the child's diet. It is recommended to organize moderate exercise for children such as: cycling, light soccer for children... Ensure enough sleep time for children. young. Pulmonary stenosis will not become serious if the patient has a mild case. If you have obvious symptoms of this disease or have been treated but still have signs of recurrence, you should see a doctor promptly to avoid dangerous complications.

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Bài viết này được viết cho người đọc tại Sài Gòn, Hà Nội, Hồ Chí Minh, Phú Quốc, Nha Trang, Hạ Long, Hải Phòng, Đà Nẵng.

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