What are antigen and antibody tests for?

Antigen and antibody tests are necessary tests in the process of examining and checking your own health. But not everyone knows what this test is and what role it plays in the diagnosis, monitoring and treatment of the disease.

1. What are antigens and antibodies?

Antibodies are small proteins that circulate in the blood, are part of the immune system, and are known as immunoglobulins. Antibodies are produced by B lymphocytes or white blood cells. Antibodies attach to proteins and various chemicals that they recognize as originating from the outside into the body. The foreign proteins and chemicals to which the antibody binds are called antigens.

2. What are antigen and antibody tests for?

Therefore, antigen and antibody tests are used to diagnose systemic autoimmune diseases. Various antibodies can be detected and measured in blood tests, and sometimes in other samples such as saliva. Antibody test results can help diagnose a specific disease we have. If you test positive for a particular antibody, you have a certain disease. However, the test results are not always certain. In addition, antibody testing is performed for a variety of reasons to combine the diagnosis of the disease.
Meanwhile some tests can identify antigens on the surface of some bacteria and some other pathogens. These tests can detect an infection more quickly without the need for cultures or microscopes.
Xét nghiệm kháng nguyên để chẩn đoán bệnh tự miễn
Xét nghiệm kháng nguyên để chẩn đoán các bệnh tự miễn hệ thống

3. When should antigen and antibody tests be performed?

Antigen and antibody tests are ordered by your doctor when he suspects you have signs or symptoms of a systemic autoimmune disease. Specifically, these people will have signs such as:
Prolonged fatigue; Mild fever; Arthritis-like pain in one or more joints; Erythema (in lupus, facial erythema); Skin is sensitive to light; Hair loss; Muscle pain; Numbness or stinging in the hands or feet; Inflammation and damage to many organs and tissues, including the kidneys, lungs, heart, endocardium, central nervous system, and blood vessels. Besides, to diagnose diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, polymyositis, scleroderma, Sjogren's syndrome, antigen-antibody test will also be performed to most accurately diagnose the disease.

4. Common antigen-antibody tests

Antigen antibody test or immunoassay is widely applied in medicine to increase the efficiency of diagnosis, treatment, and health monitoring. Some common immunological tests can be mentioned such as:
Digestive cancer screening test Allergic antigen test detects the body's antibodies against allergens such as pollen or food. Tests to detect pathogens such as viruses such as hepatitis B, C, HIV or HPV, detection of Streptococcus bacteria Diagnosis of myocardial infarction, thromboembolism, immunoassays with the role of detecting elevated specific proteins when a patient has a heart attack or an embolism Urine test quickly detects sugar, blood, protein or inflammatory cells in the urine, detects diabetes, urinary tract infection, kidney failure... quickly get drugs like hallucinogens like marijuana, ecstasy, and cocaine in the bloodstream. Blood group test
Xét nghiệm kháng nguyên, kháng thể được áp dụng rộng rãi
Xét nghiệm miễn dịch được áp dụng rộng rãi trong y khoa

5. Some notes to know before testing for antigens and antibodies

The following drugs can cause false positives for antigen-antibody test results: aminosalicylic acid, chlorprothixene, chlorothiazides, griseofulvin, hydralazine, penicillin, phenylbutazone, phenytoin sodium, procainamide, streptomycin, sulfonamides, and tetracyclines. Steroid medications can cause false negative test results Antigen and antibody tests are not used to mark or monitor clinical progression of systemic lupus erythematosus Some infections, hepatitis autoimmune, biliary cirrhosis ... can give a positive test result You need to consult your doctor and strictly follow the indications, the rules of antigen-antibody testing

To test for antigens, antibodies, you do not need to fast before the test. Test results are considered normal when negative at a titre of 1:40. Abnormal results with increased titres may indicate that you have one of the following conditions:
Systemic lupus erythematosus ; Rheumatoid arthritis ; Polyarteritis nodal; Dermatomyositis; Scleroderma; Raynaud's disease ; Sjogren's syndrome; Other immune diseases; Leukemia; Cirrhosis; Myasthenia gravis. Test results for antigens and antibodies need to be read by a doctor and given specific advice to help you orientate for proper and timely treatment.
Vinmec International General Hospital is one of the hospitals that not only ensures professional quality with a team of leading medical doctors, modern equipment and technology, but also stands out for its examination and consultation services. comprehensive and professional medical consultation and treatment; civilized, polite, safe and sterile medical examination and treatment space. Customers when choosing to perform tests here can be completely assured of the accuracy of test results.

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Bài viết này được viết cho người đọc tại Sài Gòn, Hà Nội, Hồ Chí Minh, Phú Quốc, Nha Trang, Hạ Long, Hải Phòng, Đà Nẵng.

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