All you need to know about parathyroid cancer
Parathyroid cancer is a very rare and slow growing cancer. Patients are usually 30 years of age or older. The cause of parathyroid cancer is still unknown. People with multiple endocrine neoplasia type I or those who have had head and neck radiation may be at higher risk.
1. What is parathyroid cancer?
The parathyroid gland is about the size of a pea in the neck near the thyroid gland. The parathyroid glands produce a hormone called PTH. Hormones help the body store and use calcium, help keep bones strong, and help muscles and nerves function properly. Parathyroid cancer is caused by cells of the parathyroid gland that grow out of control and form a tumor. Parathyroid cancer is divided into localized or metastatic. Localized means that the cancer is found in the glands and may have spread to tissues near the glands. Metastasis means the cancer has spread to other parts of the body such as the lungs, liver, and bones. Most people with parathyroid cancer make too much PTH, which in turn leads to too much calcium in the blood (called hypercalcemia).
Some people have a higher risk of developing parathyroid cancer than others, including those with inherited disorders such as familial isolated hyperparathyroidism (FIHP) and endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 1 (MEN1)
2. Signs of Parathyroid Cancer
Signs of parathyroid cancer often caused by too much calcium in the blood (hypercalcemia) include:
Nausea and vomiting. Weight loss and appetite. Feeling thirsty. Difficulty Thinking More Urinating Constipation Other signs of parathyroid cancer caused by the cancer itself are a lump in the neck, weakness, and feeling more tired than usual.
3. Diagnosis of parathyroid cancer
When doctors think a patient may have parathyroid cancer, they will order a number of tests including:
Physical examination: Examination of general signs of health, including examination of signs illness, such as a lump or anything unusual. Blood tests to check hormone levels and parathyroid gland activity. Imaging tests to see which glands are overactive and to see if the cancer has spread.
4. How is parathyroid cancer treated?
Usually, these treatments used in parathyroid cancer are surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy.
4.1 Surgery Surgical procedures used to treat parathyroid cancer include:
Removal of the entire gland: Also known as parathyroidectomy. The doctor will remove the entire parathyroid gland, surrounding and sometimes half of the thyroid gland in which the cancer is found, muscles, tissues, and nerves. This procedure can be done as an open procedure with an incision in the neck or as a minimally invasive procedure using a fiberoptic scope. Tumor excision: Remove as much of the tumor as possible. Sometimes the entire tumor cannot be removed. Resection of metastases: Resection of metastases is a procedure to remove cancer that has spread to other parts of the body. 4.2 Radiation Therapy Radiation therapy is a cancer treatment that uses high-energy X-rays or other types of radiation to kill cancer cells and stop them from growing. There are two methods of radiation therapy commonly used in cancer treatment:
External radiation therapy uses a machine outside the body to send radiation to the area of the body with cancer. Internal radiation therapy uses radioactive material that is placed directly on or near the cancer The way radiation is given depends on the type and stage of the cancer being treated. External radiation therapy is often used to treat parathyroid cancer.
4.3 Chemotherapy Chemotherapy is a method of using drugs to stop the growth of cancer cells, kill the cells, or stop them from dividing. When chemotherapy is given by mouth or injected into a vein/muscle, the drug enters the bloodstream and can reach cancer cells throughout the body, which is called systemic chemotherapy. When chemotherapy is placed directly into the cerebrospinal fluid, an organ, or a body cavity such as the abdomen, the drug mainly acts on the cancer cells in those areas and is called regional chemotherapy. The type of chemotherapy will depend on the type and stage of the cancer.
4.4 Supportive treatment These are treatments used to control calcium levels in the body, including:
Intravenous fluids Diuretics Drugs that prevent the body from absorbing too much calcium from foods. Medicines that stop the parathyroid gland from making too much hormone. Here is some basic information about parathyroid cancer. If you want to learn more about how parathyroid cancer is diagnosed and treated, don't hesitate to visit medical facilities for advice.
Currently at Vinmec International General Hospital, parathyroid cancer is treated effectively, gently and comfortably with modern methods. Many patients have been treated at Vinmec with positive results, their health recovered quickly, few sequelae...
Besides, at Vinmec, we provide screening and screening services for thyroid diseases, early detection for prompt treatment. When registering for screening services, screening for thyroid diseases, customers will be examined and consulted with an Endocrinologist; Thyroid ultrasound; Screening tests for thyroid diseases: FT3, FT4, TSH, Anti – TPO, Anti TG; Return When the results are available, the Client is consulted with the doctor on the next course of action if necessary.
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